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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 102
A.George Alder

Personality - The particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual - Those biologically and environmentally determined characteristics within the person that account for distinctive and relatively enduring patterns of thinking, feeling and acting - Variety of characteristics, usually defined by others – differ aspects of an individual, relatively, long lasting Types of Scales - Self report inventories o Mutitrait Inventories  Personality inventories where we simultaneously assess multiple dimensions of personality - MMPI – Clinical Scales o Developed in 1940s o 550 statements o Empirical construction  Criterion group  Control group  Hydrochondriasis  Depression  Hysteria (mental vs physical symptoms)  Psychopathic deviate (disregard social norms, shallow)  Masculinity/ Femininity  Paranoia  Psychasthenia (showing excessive level of guilt, anxiety)  Schizophrenia (bizarre thoughts)  Hypomania (impulsive)  Social introversion (insecure, shy) - MMPI – Validity Scales o Determining people if they were honest or not  Question  Lie  Frequency  Correction Cattell’s 16 PF - Raymond Catell o Factor analysis o 187 items o 16 bipolar traits o Trying to find interrelated variables for the structure and the underlying nature of personality Single Trait Inventories - Assess a single dimension of personality o Locus of control – Rotter (1966)  How much do people think they can control the outcomes o Sensation Seeking – Zuckerman (1979) o Narcissism Critique of Self-Report Inventories - Positive: o Objective o Allows rank ordering - Negative o Prone to deliberate deception, social desirability, response sets Dealing with potential sources of error - Incorporate validity or “lie” scale - Use forced choice to decrease social desirability - Used reversed items to identify response set - Eliminate neutral point on Likert scale Personality Assessment types of scales - Projective Tests o Present ambiguous stimuli and interpret subjects responses o Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)  Murray, 1930’s - Critiques o Positive:  Lack of face validity decreases chance of deliberate deception  May allow assessment of unconscious motives o Negative:  Low reliability  Questionable validity Rorschach - Scoring/interpretation o Location o Determinants o Content Narcissism – usually defined as an inflated sense of self - Twenge and Foster (2010 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Background 1856- 1939 - Male eels - Cocaine - Hysteria - Charcot - Glove anesthesia - Breuer - Anna O - Unconscious determinants of behavior Structure of Personality Levels of Awareness - ID - Conscious o Source of psychic energy o Whatever one’s aware of at any given o Most primitive portion of personality moment o Source of other structures - Preconscious o Operated on pleasure principle o Material just beneath level of o Primary process thinking awareness that can be readily - Ego retrieved (ex. Moms maiden name) o Deals with demands of reality - Unconscious o Operates on reality principle o Memories and desires well beneath o Secondary process thinking conscious awareness but yet may still - Superego influence behavior o Moral branch of personality Conflict - Most behavior motivated by conflict o Life instinct  Eros o Death instinct  Thanatos - Unresolved -> anxiety Defense Mechanisms Largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as guilt/ anxiety - Repression, Displacement, Reaction Formation, Rationalization, Projection, Sublimation, Denial, Regresssion Psychosexual Stages of Development Critique of Freud - “child is the father of man” - Positive: o Fixation o Suggest importance of unconscious  Failure to move from one stage to another o Focus on developmental aspects of personality o Oral stage o Quite broad  Birth to 1 year - Negative:  Oral receptive personality o Hard to access empirically  Oral aggressive personality o Over emphasis on male development o Anal Stage o Comparatively negative view of man  1 to 3 years o Covers up “seduction theory  Anal retentive personality  Anal expulsive personality o Phallic Stage  3 to 6 years  Unconscious conflict  Oedipus complex (Son) o Castration anxiety  Electra Complex o Penis envy o Latency Stage  6 to 11 years o Genital Stage  11 years on Carl Jung- Analytic Psych
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