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PSYC 102 Lecture Notes - Thematic Apperception Test, Anal Retentiveness, Likert Scale

Course Code
PSYC 102
A.George Alder

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- The particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual
- Those biologically and environmentally determined characteristics within the person that account for distinctive and relatively enduring
patterns of thinking, feeling and acting
- Variety of characteristics, usually defined by others differ aspects of an individual, relatively, long lasting
Types of Scales
- Self report inventories
o Mutitrait Inventories
Personality inventories where we simultaneously assess multiple dimensions of personality
- MMPI Clinical Scales
o Developed in 1940s
o 550 statements
o Empirical construction
Criterion group
Control group
Hysteria (mental vs physical symptoms)
Psychopathic deviate (disregard social norms, shallow)
Masculinity/ Femininity
Psychasthenia (showing excessive level of guilt, anxiety)
Schizophrenia (bizarre thoughts)
Hypomania (impulsive)
Social introversion (insecure, shy)
- MMPI Validity Scales
o Determining people if they were honest or not
Cattell’s 16 PF
- Raymond Catell
o Factor analysis
o 187 items
o 16 bipolar traits
o Trying to find interrelated variables for the structure and the underlying nature of personality
Single Trait Inventories
- Assess a single dimension of personality
o Locus of control Rotter (1966)
How much do people think they can control the outcomes
o Sensation Seeking Zuckerman (1979)
o Narcissism
Critique of Self-Report Inventories
- Positive:
o Objective
o Allows rank ordering
- Negative
o Prone to deliberate deception, social desirability, response sets
Dealing with potential sources of error
- Incorporate validity or “lie” scale
- Use forced choice to decrease social desirability
- Used reversed items to identify response set
- Eliminate neutral point on Likert scale
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Personality Assessment types of scales
- Projective Tests
o Present ambiguous stimuli and interpret subjects responses
o Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Murray, 1930’s
- Critiques
o Positive:
Lack of face validity decreases chance of deliberate deception
May allow assessment of unconscious motives
o Negative:
Low reliability
Questionable validity
- Scoring/interpretation
o Location
o Determinants
o Content
Narcissism usually defined as an inflated sense of self
- Twenge and Foster (2010
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Background 1856- 1939
- Male eels
- Cocaine
- Hysteria
- Charcot
- Glove anesthesia
- Breuer
- Anna O
- Unconscious determinants of behavior
Structure of Personality
- ID
o Source of psychic energy
o Most primitive portion of personality
o Source of other structures
o Operated on pleasure principle
o Primary process thinking
- Ego
o Deals with demands of reality
o Operates on reality principle
o Secondary process thinking
- Superego
o Moral branch of personality
- Most behavior motivated by conflict
o Life instinct
o Death instinct
- Unresolved -> anxiety
Defense Mechanisms
Largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as guilt/ anxiety
- Repression, Displacement, Reaction Formation, Rationalization, Projection, Sublimation, Denial, Regresssion
Levels of Awareness
- Conscious
oWhatever one’s aware of at any given
- Preconscious
oMaterial just beneath level of
awareness that can be readily
retrieved (ex. Moms maiden name)
- Unconscious
oMemories and desires well beneath
conscious awareness but yet may still
influence behavior
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