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Lecture 4

PSYC 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: German Shepherd, Function Word, Family Resemblance


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 102
Professor
A.George Alder
Lecture
4

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PSYCH- Test 2!
Ch. 9 (Language Development & Problem Solving)!
Vocabulary
Language- a system for communicating with others using signals that are combined according
to rules of grammar and convey meaning!
Grammar- a set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce
meaningful messages !
Phoneme- smallest unit of sound that is recognizable as speech rather than as random noise!
Morphemes- smallest meaningful units of language (ex. Pe has no meaning but Pat does)!
Phonological Rule- set of rules that indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce
speech sounds (Ex. Ts sound applicable in German but not in English)!
Morphological Rules- set of rules that indicate how morphemes can be combined to from
words!
Content Morphemes- refer to things and events (e.g. cat, dog, take)!
Functional Morphemes- serve grammatical functions (e.g. and and but) or indicating
time (when)!
Syntactical Rules- set of rules that indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and
sentences!
Deep Structures- the meaning of a sentence!
Surface Structures- how a sentence is worded!
Fast Mapping- fact that children can map a word into an underlying concept after only a single
exposure!
Telegraphic Speech- Speech that is devoid of function morphemes and consists mostly of
content word!
Nativist- view that language development is best explained as an innate, biological capacity!
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)- collection of processes that facilitates language learning !
Genetic Dyshasia- syndrome characterized by an inability to learn the grammatical structure of
language despite having otherwise normal intelligence !
Aphasia- Diculty in producing or comprehending language!
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis- proposal that language shapes the nature of thought !
Concept- mental representation that groups or categorizes shared features of related objects,
events or other stimuli!
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Necessary Condition- something that must be true of the object in order for it to belong to the
category (dog is a mammal)!
Sucient Condition- is something that, if it is true of the object, proves that it belongs to the
category (the dog thats a mammal is a German Shepard)!
Family resemblance theory- members of a category have features that appear to be
characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member!
Prototype- the “best” or “most typical” member of a category!
Exemplar Theory- theory of categorization that argues that we make category judgements by
comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category!
Category Specific Deficit- neurological syndrome that is characterized by an inability to
recognize objects that belong to a particular category, although the ability to recognize objects
outside the category is undisturbed!
Rational Choice theory- classical view that we make decisions by determining how likely
something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two (ex.
Gaining/losing money from gambling (cogs))!
Availability Bias- items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred
more frequently !
Heuristic (rule of thumb)- fast and ecient strategy that may facilitate decision making but
does not guarantee that a solution will be reached !
Algorithm- well-defined sequence of procedures or rules that guarantees a solution to a
problem!
Conjunction Fallacy- when people think that two events are more likely to occur together than
either individual event ( ex. Linda the bank teller feminist)!
Representativeness Heuristic- a mental shortcut that involves making a probability judgement
by comparing an object or event to a prototype of the object or event!
Framing Eects- when people give dierent answers to the same problem depending on how
the problem is phrased !
Sunk-Cost Fallacy- framing eect in which people make decisions about a current situation
based on what they have previously invested in the situation!
Prospect theory- people choose to take on the risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid
risks when evaluating potential gains!
Frequently Format Hypothesis- the proposal that our minds evolved to notice how frequently
things occur, not how likely they are to occur!
Ill-defined Problem- one that doesn’t have a clear goal or well-defined solution paths
(ex.problems studying)!
Well-defined Problem- one with clearly specified goals and clearly defined solution paths (ex
following directions)!
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