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Lecture 11

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V.Gordon Rose

PSYC 109W- Lecture 11 SENSATION, PERCEPTION & SUBLIMAL PERSUASION Sensation vs. Perception  Sensation o A process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energy  Perception o A process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events Bottom-Up Processing (Sensation):  Analysis beginning with the sense receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information Top-Down Processing (Perception):  Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes  As when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations Sensation: Thresholds  Absolute Threshold o Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time  Difference Threshold o Minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time o Just Noticeable Difference (JND)  Signal Detection o Predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise) o Assumes that there is no single absolute threshold o Detection depends partly on person’s  Experience  Expectations  Motivation  Level of fatigue  Subliminal o When stimuli are below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness Sensation: Vision 1. Light entering eye triggers photochemical reaction in rods and cones at back of retina 2. Chemical reaction in turn activates bipolar cells 3. Bipolar cells then activate the ganglion cells, the axons of which converge to form the optic nerve. This nerve transmits information to the visual cortex in t
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