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PSYC 109W (7)
Lecture 12

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Simon Fraser University
V.Gordon Rose

PSYC 109W- Lecture 12 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT & WORKING MOTHERS Developmental Psychology  Lifelong  Child development: o Prenatal o Maturation (physical) o Cognitive development o Social development (including personality) Social Development  Stranger Anxiety o Fear of strangers that infants commonly display o Beginning by about 8 months of age  Attachment o An emotional tie with another person o Shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and displaying distress on separation  Harlow’s Surrogate Mother Experiments o Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother  Monkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror-stricken when placed in strange situations without their surrogate mothers Three Phases of Attachment in Humans:  Indiscriminate  Discriminate  Specific Separation Anxiety  Ainsworth (1978) o Patterns of attachment  Secure  Anxious-ambivalent  Avoidant  Kagan (1976) o Groups of infants left by their mothers in a unfamiliar room Basic Trust (Erik Erikson)  A sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy  Said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers Self-Concept  A sense of one’s identity and personal worth Authoritarian  Parents impose rules and expect obedience  “Don’t interrupt.” “Why?” “Because I said so.” Permissive  Submit to children’s desires, make few demands, use little punishment Authoritative  Both demanding and responsive  Set rules, but explain reasons and encourage open discussion Stage Theories—three components  Progress through stages in order  Progress through stages related to age  Major discontuities in development Erik Erikson (1963)  Eight stages spanning the lifespan  Psychosocial crises determining balance between opposing polarities in personality Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approx. Age Stage Description
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