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Jamal Mansour

Psychology 201W w/Jamal Mansour 09/06/2012 Sept. 6, 2012 Psych 201W Intro to Research methods in Psychology Syllabus Contact Call her Dr. Mansour or Jamal E­mail: [email protected] (inclue psych 201 in subject line) Phone: 228 782 9082 (don’t text her) During office hours RCB 8307 Thurs 12:00 to 1:00 pm. Only contact if… You will be unable to attend an exam Unresolved concern with TA Don’t have access to WEbct You want to discuess some aspect of the class Expect a response withing 48­96 hours (2­4 days). Webct Get Lecture notes, lecture recordings Supplimentay materials (practice questions, further readings, student learning resources, etc.) Grades Post Questions about course content Digital versions of assignments Read announcements All important course announcements posted there… expected to read these regularly. Lectures are  recorded. Login as soon as you can.  TA Foster Ranney. [email protected] O/H th 4:30­5:30, F 2:30­3:30 RCB 5221. Expect a response withing 48­96 hours. Do not e­mail again about same issue until 96 hours has passed.  Ask them first on webct discussion board for course content. E­mail for personal matters.  Contact them about the course material, how the course is administered, how to do the assignments, exam  details, grading, webct.  Questions asked less than 24 hours before assignment due dates will not be answered. Questions asked  less than 12 hours before and exam may be answered.  Labs start September 14. Friday next week. Not this week. Attendance is required.  Practice with what we learn in lecture Time to work on research project in group Bring iclicker.  E­mail etiquette Hi Dr. Mansour Yada yada yada Cheers, Lindsay Be polite and clear. Overall learning objectives Ability to critically evaluate the validity of the results of research and conclusions drawn from research Be able to design and conduct simple research projects given a research question … see notes. Exams based on textbook.  Evaluation Exams (midterm and final) 44% Midterm Thursday Oct. 18 2:30­4:20 here 20% chapters 1­7 Final Thurs Dec 13 24% cumulative.  Lab assignments 10% Wtiting assignments Need a paper copy and a digital copy. (webct and box by her office RCB 8307) 1 Oct 4 summarize and critique a research article 5% 2 Nov. 1 Update critique and respond to TA feedback 5%  Research Project 40% Due noon on the last day of classes. Paper and online  copies.  Project involves designing a study, collecting data, basic analyses, writing up the motivation (lit review),  methods and results of project Research Participation 6% See site on webct.  Final grades are scaled Letter grades assigned after all components of the course completed Final grade will be determined by overall position in the final rank ordering of students.  Be careful of patchwriting. Read a sentence, look away and paraphrase it. Do it twice. What are we saying  about a subject.  Laptops in the back 3 rows. Participate!  Two objectives: 1.1 Explain reasons for understanding research methods 1.2 Describe the scientific approach to learning about behavior, and contrast it with pseudoscientific  research. Objectives are on the first page of each chapter.  Research methods are important for figuring out if we can trust the results we find.  Day ranking A:13 B:11 C: 5 D: 2 E: 1 F: 3 G:6 H:7 I: 4 J: 8 K:9 L:10 M:12 Horoscopes are so vague that they aren’t very reliable.  Why include the pet horoscope? They can be related to completely irrelevant things. When you look for  particular information, you only read your one and then try to make it fit. Opposite in science. Try to prove  yourself wrong.  Research methods help us evaluate information.  Evaluate claims Justify/inform decisions Aid in public policy Program development and evaluation.  Horoscopes are vague statements and you can’t test their accuracy. Need testable and specific statements  to gain knowledge.  What is the scientific approach? Observe in a structured, systematic way (empiricism) Try to replicate and understand findings.  Share your findings so there is open exchange and competition of ideas.  Peer Review of findings Requires scientific skepticism Ideas must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic and results from scientific investigation Requires falsifiable ideas Ideas that can be refuted or supported using empirical data (i.e., observation)  Sept. 13, 2012 Webct resources Activities in class are not on webct. Lectures recorded and on webct. Time table for lectures and labs. Reminder about dates Assignment 1: Oct 4 (noon) Research Project Outline- Oct 12-18 Midterm- Oct 18 Assignments 2- Nov. 1 Research…. … … Scientific method. Pseudoscience (pg 7): the appearance of credibility without credibility. Something that looks like science but isn’t based on the scientific method. Maybe can gain knowledge from it. Many ways to gain knowledge. How do we categorize this? Talk to an authority. Experts aren’t always the best source of information. Is this person an authority in this field? Is their judgment reliable? Are they being paid? Would we trust our parents to program our ipods? Have to check that an authority is appropriate. Intuition. If you had to choose between jar A (1 red, 10 total) or jar B (8 red, 100 total). A is better, because you have a higher probability of getting the red jelly bean. We really can’t always rely on intuition. Even trying to detect if someone is lying. We might have a 4% greater than chance ability of predicting it correctly. Logic. As long as logic is not flawed, can come up with the right answer. 3 boxes labeled incorrectly. Which box could you look at to figure out what is in all 3? A. Apples, B. Oranges. C. Apples and Oranges. C because then apples would have to be oranges and B would be both. Can use faulty logic to confuse people. Correlation of two things but assuming wrong cause. Need scientific method to show cause and effect. What is the scientific approach? Observe in a structured, systematic way (empiricism) Try to replicate and understand findings Share your findings so that there is open exchange and competition of ideas. Peer review of findings. Ensures research is of good quality and to stimulate new research. Research is as solid and credible as possible. Need scientific skepticism and falsifiable ideas. Specific goals of science: Describe behavior: What do people do when they experience a terrible tragedy? Predict behavior Want to predict the mental health of our staff. Ask them to fill out a questionnaire. Measure physical health, past history of mental health issues, etc. Determine causes What causes people to stop smoking? Can implement a program to help them. What causes people to perform better academically? 3 things we look for temporal precedence covariation of cause and effect eliminate alternative explanations. Explain behavior Why are people behaving this way? What sorts of things are involved? Reading club: what about joining a reading group would help girls improve their IQ scores. See ppt for further details. The scientific method Research questions What is it that you want to find out? Why do blonds have more fun? Who, what, where.. .etc. Hypothesis A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables It is a prediction of the answer to the question… see ppt. Hypothesis or research q: “A staged crime paradigm was used to evaluate the costs and benefits of “fair” lineups.” It is a research question. Discuss how a hypothesis differs from a research question and a theory…. This differs from our text. Hypothesis doesn’t have to give you a direction. Prediction is directional (people who do not smoke will be healthier than those who do). See ppt. Theories take information that we learn from research and organize the data we already have. Theories identify where there are holes in research. May need stronger support. Which is the theory and the hypothesis People look outside themselves for hot to evaluate their attitudes and opinions. Theory People’s tendency to compaie themselves to specific other people will decrease as the differences in theory opinions or abilities become great. Theories are generally more general and hypotheses are more specific. Sept. 20, 2012: Research Ethics Research Ethics Objectives on slides. Emphasis on 1,2,3,4,6 during lecture.  Ethics board reviewer responsible to asses the situation. They need to have a good sense of what is  happening in order to make that decision. Showing a video, need to provide information about how to get  counseling if offensive.  How we achieve goals… see ppt. Video: Captain America▯ scene where skinny captain America jumps on a grenade to protect his other  army buddies. Operation rebirth experiment. Gets operation, makes him strong. Drastic human  experimentation. Video▯ experiment scene. Was this ethical? Was there informed consent? Did the cost  justify the results? Concern for welfare (of the participant): Is the potential benefit to society… ppt. Ethical challenges In order to get baseline data for an experimental study on self­injurious behavior in autistic children,  participants were observed without intervention unless the child was engaging in behavior that would cause  permanent injury.  Is this okay? Yes: Can’t study without actual autistic children. Not bringing them harm, they behave like this anyways.  No: shouldn’t let children come to harm. Inaction not appropriate. Do parents normally stop them. How do  they judge permanent injury to children? Will they step in on time?  Until behavior is observed, you can’t really plan specific intervention.  Is the participant able to give consent. Kids can give assent but guardians give consent.  How much punishment is appropriate? How much self­harm is appropriate? Informed consent: What if your doctor asked you to participate in acne experiment. Didn’t tell you that mice  had liver failure after year of treatment. Would you give consent to this? What if liver failure only happens in 1% of the mice? What if there are multiple drugs being used?  What if after a year there is improvement with one of the drugs but not the other? What if you are taking the  other drug? What if they didn’t offer the drug to you.  Justice: the benefits and burdens of research are allocated as fairly as possible to all those involved. Is  there a group of people being discluded?  At one time in history there were no guidelines. After WW2 and the nurberg trials. Tried for crimes against  humanity. First ethical guidelines for what happens in research.  Video: 1930­1972 “The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment on Black men”  Non­standard case. Media brought this to an end. Denied the cure when discovered. No benefit for the  participants for staying in the study (already knew how to treat with penecillan).  No informed consent… manipulated. Told they were getting treatment when they weren’t. promised $1000  but used as blackmail. Risk was not allocated fairly. Poor farmers were in the syphilis group. No Justice. Poor black farmers got the  bulk of the harm. Didn’t receive any benefits. Should have received or been informed about the cure. Actually prevented from  receiving the cure. Would lose the free health care they were receiving.  There was risk also for the wives and children of the participants. Interaction and contraction.  Was initially a government program.  A researcher recruits poor minorities to participate in a risky experiment? A) concern for welfare (I chose) L Not risk that is a problem, can be justified and properly monitored.  B) respect for persons W uld not be the case that just because they are in a poor minority, doesn’t mean it  isn’t informed consent. C) Justice (actually) J Reason: Related to carrying the burdens and benefits. Burden allocated to a poor  minority.  A researcher tricks people into participating by suggesting that they might win a contest? A) Concern for welfare B) Respect for persons (I chose) J YAY! Did not give informed consent! C) Justice Designing an ethical study.  Informed consent, debrief, as low risk as possible, allow the subjects to withdraw at any time, protect their  identity. Obtain informed consent Problems: Some populations are incapable of informed consent (children, special needs, elderly, language barrier,  intoxicated) Coercion (being forced to do something, risk if you don’t participate. Going to lose out on something, or  something bad will happen if you don’t do it. What % of mark based on participation? This is coercion, but  there is another option so this is not really the case. The benefit we get is seeing how research takes place,  their design, we get to help be a part of the research… learn more about psychology) Withholding information and deception (Internal validity of the study can’t be threatened by telling exactly  what the study is about. People resistant if they know what is happening, they are aware that you are trying  to affect their choice preference… want to help or not help… not testing what you want to test.  What issues related to informed consent arise here? see ppt. 3 examples.  Stressful ethics situation. Children can’t really get informed parental consent… risk for the children to  participate. Blanket approval. Gets individual children assent. Did they understand what was happening?  Was there a language barrier? Do they know words besides “yes”? They need someone acting in the  interest of the children present. Are they making sure the children’s rights upheld? How old are they? Are  they just old enough to talk? Not close to informed consent! 6­9, 13­16 probably okay. Telling traumatizing  stories, they need to be given an opportunity to get counseling after… this would need to be clear before  hand. Should have someone to help the children if they become distressed. Might be suffering from PTSD  and cannot give informed consent.  Which of these concerns characterized the Tuskegee Experiment?  A) some populations incapable of informed consent (the participants were illiterate but not incapable of  informed consent. Might have been at a late stage of the disease and be unable to) B) Coercion ($1000 withheld if they didn’t finish the experiment, healthcare taken away) C) Withholding information and deception (told they were being treated when they weren’t. Weren’t told  about the existence of penicillin. They were not debriefed about the research) Allow subjects to withdraw Data confidential Debrief subjects Dehoax Reveal true purpose Explain why was it necessary Has to do with the concern for the person’s autonomy. Respect for the people. Telling them the truth.  Milgrim study: need to tell the people that the man was okay and hadn’t actually been shocked.  Desensitize.  Reduce stress created by manipulations in study In the Milgrim study had to let the people know they hadn’t actually hurt the confederate. Bring the stress of  the research project down.  Another concern about Dr. Wainry’s study. Kids d
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