PSYC 201W Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Statistical Conclusion Validity, Causal Inference, Ecological Validity

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Chapter 10: Categories of Inference and Validity Type
Inferences about constructs
Construct validity: are the constructs that are claimed to be studied, in fact, what they are truly
being manipulated and measuring
Statistical Inferences
Statistical validity: involves proper stat treatment of data and soundness of researcher’s stat
Causal Inferences
Internal validity: degree to which a researcher is certain that a certain variable has a causal
effect on another
Inferences about generalizability
External validity: degree to which a study's results can be generalized to other situations than
the one in which they were obtained
Construct Validity: are we measuring what we intend to measure? (vague things like creativity or
aggression) has researcher come up with good way to measure vague constructs??
Are operational definitions true to underlying construct? How do we know the measures are
Statistical Conclusion validity: did researchers perform appropriate stat analysis/does data meet
assumptions surrounding particular tests.
External Validity: can findings be generalized beyond he present study to other
populations/settings/species? (ie not just uni students in psyc 100 forced for credit)
Ecological validity: addresses generalizability to "real-life" settings (would lab experiments with biases
be able to be generalized to da reel world??, things done in naturalistic observation has more ecological
validity than lab research)
Mundane realism: addresses similarity b/w experimental environ and real world settings (read news
paper article=more mundane, rather than memorize random letter combinations_
Psychological realism: addresses degree to which experimental setting encourages participants to
behave naturally
Replication: previous studies are repeated to see whether original findings still hold/evidence
for/against external validity gradually accumulates through replication (over time, 1950, 2000)
Complete (full replication): do study exact same way as original study
Partial replication: only replication few aspects of original study (research question but look at
dif things//modify method a bit)
Direct (exact) replication: follow original procedures as closely as possible
Conceptual replications: look at same research question but operationalize constructs
Replication and extensions:
Internal validity: ability to make causal inferences/ is IV responsible for DV changes??
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