PSYC 201W Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: United States Public Health Service, Canadian Psychological Association, Nuremberg Code

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Chapter 3: Conducting Ethical Research
Codes of research: moral standards
oEthic concerns permeates whole process of how u collect data/analyses subjects/report
oIs the potential benefit to society strong enough to warrant the potential risk to the
Nuremberg Code (nazi Germany time)
oSet of ethical principles essential for medical experiments to be "permissible"
oVoluntary consent with freedom to withdraw at any time
oInfo prior to giving consent about research purpose and potential risks
oAvoidance of unnecessary risk
oResults should be sufficient value t outweigh risks to subjects
oQualified scientists must conduct research
Tuskegee Experiment
oUS public health service (1932-1972)
oStudy designed to explore long term effects being exposed to syphilis
oHad big benefits, if patients sought treatment for it they would be dropped from study
(denied treatment to subjects for science), gave them free meals, money if they died, free
rides etc.
oHighly unethical, some effects of syphilis gave people bone deterioration
Belmont Report
oApplicable to human research (researchers must comply with these in order for research
to be conducted in US)
Respect (treat ppl with dignity)
Beneficence (maximize benefits/avoid harm)
Justice (people have equal access to benefits)
APA Ethics code (2010)
oBeneficence and nonmalefience
oFidelity and responsibility
oIntegrity (be honest with how reporting results)
Ethical Standards in human research
oTri-council policy for ethical conduct for research involving humans (in Canada university
research is funded by one of the following gov agencies)
oBasic principles
Respect for human dignity
Respect for free/informed consent
Respect for vulnerable persons
Respect for privacy/confidentiality
Respect for justice and inclusiveness
Balancing harm and benefits (min harm, max benefit)
CPA (canadian psychological association)
oProtect/promote welfare of participants
oAvoid doing harm to them
oNot carry out studies unless benefit is proportionately greater than rick
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