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Lecture 1

# PSYC 210 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Statistical Inference, Descriptive Statistics, Standard Deviation

by OC836872

School

Simon Fraser UniversityDepartment

PsychologyCourse Code

PSYC 210Professor

Snjezana HuertaLecture

1Topic I: Introductory Material

â€˘ Syllabusâ€“ Introductions

â€“ Course objectives and organizationâ€“ Creating an environment conducive to learning â€“ Student

deliverables and evaluationâ€“ Course schedule

â€˘ Describing Data â€“ Terminology

â€“ Format of datasets

â€˘ Measurement in Psychologyâ€“ Stevensâ€™ scales of measurementâ€“ Data transformations (& their

implications) â€“ Some issues and considerations

Statistics

The word statistics is often used to refer to the:1. Set of procedures or rules used to summarize

some

characteristic or relation in a sample and 2. Resulting outcomes(The term does not refer to the

data.)

There are two classes of statistics covered in this course:

â€˘ Descriptive statistics: Describe and summarize the data

â€˘ Inferential statistics: Characteristics of the sample are used to make inferences about the

populationâ€™s characteristics

Describing Data: Some Distinctions

â€˘ Parametersversusstatisticsâ€˘ Variablesversusconstantsâ€˘ Dichotomousversuspolytomousvariables

â€˘ Discreteversuscontinuousdataâ€˘ Quantitativeversusqualitativedata

Describing Data: Some Distinctions

PARAMETER /

STATISTIC

A numerical quantity that summarizes a characteristic of the population

A numerical quantity that summarizes a characteristic of the sample

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-denoted using Roman letters e.g., the mean level of some variable, X, at the

-denoted using Greek letters

population level (ÎĽX) and for a sample (X )

This is an unique identifier, assigned by the researcher to link related information and maintain

anonymity

Describing Data: Some Distinctions

ID Group

VARIABLES and CONSTANTS

Age(G) (X; in mo.)

Math (M/100)

ScaleUp (C)

Variables

Constant

Describing Data: Some Distinctions Dichotomous versus polytomous variables

â€“ Dichotomous Variables: only 2 response options

e.g.:â€˘ pass/failâ€˘ yes/noâ€˘ clinical/notclinical â€˘ 0/1

â€“ Polytomous Variables: more than 2 response options

e.g.:

â€˘never/sometimes/always

â€˘blonde/red/brunette/black/grey/white/other

â€˘0/1/2/3/4/5/6/7

Describing Data: Some Distinctions

Discrete Data

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Continuous Data

â€˘ Attributes or objects that can be represented with a scale consisting of whole units only

â€˘ Attributes or objects that can be represented with a scale that includes fractions or parts of a

whole

(no fractions)

e.g., categories, frequencies or counts

e.g., weight, height, relative frequencies or proportions

Describing Data: Some Distinctions

Qualitative Data

Quantitative Data

â€˘ Cases are differentiated in terms of two or more qualities or categories

â€˘ Cases are differentiated in terms of the quantities of an attribute they possess

â€˘ Measurement in Psychologyâ€“ Stevensâ€™ scales of measurementâ€“ Data transformations (& their

implications) â€“ Some issues and considerations

Measurement in Psychology What is Measurement?

â€˘ The systematic assignment of numbers to phenomena of interest (e.g., objects or responses; see

Howell, 2007; Stevens, 1936, 1946)

â€˘ The ordering of data using a particular scale; that is, we seek â€śa scale adequate to the

measurement of the [phenomenon of interest]â€ť (Stevens, 1936, p. 405)

â€˘ There are different systems of rules for assigning numbers depending on the kind of

information collected; Stevens (1946)Ń° identified four scales of measurement

Ń°Stevens wrote a number of articles on the issue of measurement; this is but one.

Measurement in Psychology Why Measure?

â€˘ For the purposes of representing and, possibly, comparing phenomena â€“

â€śtorepresentaspectsoftheempiricalworldâ€ť(Stevens,1946,p.677)â€“

â€śtorepresentfactsandconventionsabout[things]â€ť(Stevens,1946,p.680)

â€˘ Ideally, to represent phenomena and the relations amongst them using mathematical formulas

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###### Document Summary

Course objectives and organization creating an environment conducive to learning student deliverables and evaluation course schedule: describing data terminology. Format of datasets: measurement in psychology stevens" scales of measurement data transformations (& their implications) some issues and considerations. The word statistics is often used to refer to the:1. Set of procedures or rules used to summarize some characteristic or relation in a sample and 2. Resulting outcomes(the term does not refer to the data. ) There are two classes of statistics covered in this course: descriptive statistics: describe and summarize the data, inferential statistics: characteristics of the sample are used to make inferences about the population"s characteristics. Describing data: some distinctions: parametersversusstatistics variablesversusconstants dichotomousversuspolytomousvariables, discreteversuscontinuousdata quantitativeversusqualitativedata. A numerical quantity that summarizes a characteristic of the population. A numerical quantity that summarizes a characteristic of the sample. Denoted using roman letters e. g. , the mean level of some variable, x, at the.

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