PSYC 221 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Psychometrics, Fundamental Attribution Error, Hermann Ebbinghaus

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LECTURE 1 INTRO
Cognition: mental process, activities used in perceiving, remembering, thinking, and how we use those
processes
In-group bias: to like ppl who are in your group
COG. PSYCH BIG PLAYERS
Thales
World made of earth, air, fire, water
o Water = essential element of life (needed for survival of all things)
Anaximander
Disagrees w/ Thales
"you are only as good as your assumptions"
Anaximenes
Agreed w/ Thales
Main assumption of reality life is based on earth, air, fire, water
Plato
Ppl need to escape and explore to understand reality
What we see what we know
Aristotle
What we see = what we know
Associations: things viewed as co-occurring/similar
Galen
Pneuma: air coming into body = how soul emerges (thru air)
3 parts of human physiology
o Rational: brain
o Spirited: heart
o Appetitive: liver (or stomach)
THINKING
Memory: mental process of keeping and retrieving information for later
3 processes:
o Acquisition, retention, retrieval
Structuralism: sensations, images, feelings that are elements of consciousness
o Extreme variation of introspection: investigation where subjects look inside selves and
describe own mental processes and thoughts
Wilhelm Wundt
Today used in less scientific applications
Hermann Ebbinghaus
o Attempted to memorize consonance-vowel-consonance triads
o Savings score: % of triads remembered
Immediately after reading list of triads: 100% remembered
20 mins after: 60%
1 hour after: 40%
9 hours after: 20%
o Relearning: no. of repetitions required to meet learning criterion
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