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January 9th Lecture

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 241
Dagmar Bernstein

PSYC 2341 January 9 , 2013 Lecture 3 Paradigms cont'd THE BIOLOGICAL PARADIGM Also known as the Medical Model or Disease Model  Assumption – psychological disorders have a physical etiology (=cause)  Very old idea ◦ e.g., Greeks recognized a disorder called hysteria, a psychological problem primarily in women. Due to a “wandering uterus” looking for warmth and moisture in various parts of the body. Treated by applying burning dung to make it an unpleasant place for the uterus.  Approach to studying abnormality ◦ First, observe large #'s of patients exhibiting different symptoms (symptoms = abcdefghijklmno) ▪ Observation indicates that some symptoms tend to be correlated: abcd efg hijkl mno. ▪ These clusters of symptoms are called syndromes. ◦ Second, look for the etiology of each syndrome. ◦ Third, Find treatment for each etiology – some paradigms have adopted this approach (i.e., MD’s) Textbook Example General paresis and syphilis 1. SYNDROME – Gradual paralysis, delusions of grandeur, eventual death, etc 2. ETIOLOGY a. Sea water? – but lots of sailors had it b. Alcohol and cigars? – but some females had it c. Syphilis? – some admitted it, some didn’t, open lesion on genitals You can’t get syphilis more than once so in 1897, neurologist von Krafft-Ebing inoculated 9 general paresis patients with syphilis. None developed syphilis. This established that general paresis was due to syphilis. 3. TREATMENT a. In 1909, after 605 failed attempts, Ehrlich discovered a cure—arsenic! The dose was measured via body weight so it would be enough to kill the virus but not kill the patient; they would just get violently ill. Known as “606” or “Dr. Ehrlich’s magic bullet”. b. In the 1940’s, penicillin replaced 606 as the preferred treatment; rarely killed the patient. With physical pathology, the sequence is usually (1) syndrome, (2) etiology, and (3) treatment. With the psychopathology, the sequence is usually gone: (1) syndrome, (2) accidental discovery of treatment, and (3) use of treatment to discover etiology. Techniques Family Method  Average number of genes shared by blood relatives is known  Kids get 50% of their genes from each parent  Therefore, the parent, child, and sibling are identical in 50% of genetic makeup  first degree  More distant relatives share fewer ◦ i.e., Nephews and nieces share 25% of their uncle’s genes  second degree PSYC 2341 January 9 , 2013 ◦ Third degree  12.5% of genes shared Twin Studies  MZ twins share 100% of genes  DZ twins share 50% of genes like siblings do Adoption Studies  Adopted children share genes with biological parents  Adopted children only share environm
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