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School
Simon Fraser University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 250
Professor
Tanya Broesch
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 1: What is Developmental Psyc? January-08-13 2:32 PM What is developmental psychology? (3 main points) 1. Human (adult) psychological processes • The study of psychological changes throughout the lifespan o e.g. of change of toddler's movement from first few months to first year o Perceptual development, language development, emotion development o Things needed for healthy development: proper environment, nutrients, encouragement • How experiences affect the onset(e.g. when baby started walking) • Important to help understand adult psychological processes, behavioural differences/similarities • Studies of language development may underlying certain abilities Why were the kids in Kenya failing the self recognition test • Amount of exposure to mirrors • Cultural influences, the individualist vs. collectivist • The difference in nutrition between US children and children from Kenya • Maybe they just don't get embarrassed as easily as those in the US • Mirror life recognition is construed differently in N.A 2. To help us understand human nature • Which human aspects are natural and which are culturally variable • Which aspects of human psychology do you think are.. a. Human in nature? b. Specific to your culture? • Ones that are universal: o Developing language o Feeling of empathy is universal o The basic affiliated need(need to socialize/be in a group) o Basic biological drives (needs to eat) • However, Some societies do not experience pain in the same way • Specific to culture: o Strength of child attachment o Treatment of the elderly • Child welfare and properties • To help parents and educators know how interactions and other experiences affect children's development • How people talk to babies • Infant directive speech is present in all societies and it is good for all babies o Talking to babies in a higher pitch and slower, repetitive, acoustic speech History of Developmental psychology • Plato - believed that children were born with innate knowledge • Aristotle- believed that things are learned Species typical environment ( or experience-expectant) • Species typical environment - When the basic needs are met o Example of species typical environment is the movie trailer shown in class, Nell • Piaget believed in stage theory - butterfly: developmental discontinuity (an e.g. of a qualitative change) • Vygotsky - focus on social learning o ZPD (zone of proximal development): abilities of a child, with or without the support of an adult • Teach child algebra, that would be outside the child's ZPD • Interesting- being aware of your own ZPD- What you are and are not capable of • Nature and Nurture • Nature refers to our biological endowment, esp the genes we receive from our parents • Nurture refers to the wide range of environments, both physical and social, that influence our development o How people, culture, nutrition, personal experiences, enrichment, education, and the amount of love and protection shown by parents influence you as a person o Visual environment, color environment can all shape your development • How to characterize development • Continuous o For e.g. a tree growing from young to old • Discontinuous o Butterfly development--> there Is a dramatic shift from young to old • Active child • Preferences • Activities • Temperament o Children are born with a temperament and are not completely shaped • Mechanisms of change • If you don't use it, you lose it o e.g. When babies are born, they are exposed to things that shape their development. They are exposed to all the phonemes(sounds) of different languages. If they are not exposed during the critical period, they lose those certain sounds • Sociocultural context • In specific village of Fiji, the reject traditional schooling • Difference between natural environment • Diff. in clothing • Proximity, living with a grandparents in a small tiny house whereas with N.A. people, we don't • Individual differences • Genes • Treatment by people • Subjective reactions to others treatment of them • Choices • Developmental psychology is a science Chapter 1- Textbook notes What is developmental psychology? • Developmental psyc is a science, what we believe to be true about it needs to be consistent with what we know from other branches of science • Genetic development includes psychological processes including motor development, perceptual development, conceptual development, cognitive, social, emotional, language, gender and sexual and moral development What is development ? • The creation of sex cells, and sexual production • The developing child was "designed" by natural selection making us of resources that were likely available to our ancestors (eg. Physical nutritional, social and linguistic resources) • Adaption: a trait that is designed and preserved by the process of natural selection because that trait confers a reproductive advantage in the environment in which it evolved Why study the developmental psyc of children? Species typical environments: the environment that provides the features that the genome needs or "expects" in order to develop typically o How info interacts with the developing child to bring about lasting changes • 2nd- studying child psyc may provide info into adult psychological processes. For e.g. language development may shed light on the rules underlying adult language production • 3rd- we want to know how parents, educator's interactions with children affect their development Nature vs. Nurture • Plato and aristotle believed that children, esp. boys were naturally unruly and aggressive --> discipline and self control were important parts of childhood education • Plato was seen as the classic nativist: one who views development as being driven primarily or exclusively by internal forces. The info needed for development is assumed to exist within the developing child. o Nativist view aka rationalism supported by european continent • Aristotle, the classic empiricist: one who believes that all knowledge depends upon direct experience of empirical observation Nature Nurture Plato's beliefs- Nativist: Aristotles beliefs- -believed children were Empiricist: born with innate • Believed the mind knowledge of a newborn baby was a -plato said young children blank slate on which only had to recollect info knowledge would be written that was available by experience Jean- Jacques John Locke- held the extreme Rousseau- French value that all knowledge was philosopher- he thought a result of experience children had conceptual •
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