Class Notes (838,386)
Canada (510,872)
Psychology (1,556)
PSYC 250 (50)
Lecture

ch2.doc

9 Pages
129 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 250
Professor
Tanya Broesch
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 2: Theories and Methods in Developmental Psyc January-13-13 4:26 PM Jean Piaget • Stage development: qualitative changes that happen o For e.g. learning how to add as opposed to learning to multiply and divide • Stages of development • Sensorimotor: variety of reflexes such as bubinsky reflex(infant curling toes when sole of foot is touched) o 6 sub stages of sensorimotor: o Exercising reflexes ( birth to 1month) • Preoperational: symbolic development. Arbitrary sounds that represents something else o Imaginal play: using blocks to actually represent something else o Egocentrism: only think of world through their perspective (child covers eyes thinking the seeker cant see them b/c they can't see the seeker) • Concrete operational o Deductive reasoning • Formal operational o Where a person reasons hypothetically Sources of developmental change • For e.g, a child has a concept of a cat, four leg, fur, eats, meows. Come across a dog and calls it a cat. --> Assimilation. Giving the child feedback saying no that’s not a cat, then they begin to form another category, one for dogs --> Accommodation • Assimilation • Accommodation • Equilibration Object Permanence • Having an understanding that objects are permanent • Piaget and Baillergeon o Piaget tested children by making them search for the objects • A not B error( hid object under A but then we switch it and hide it under B but the child continues to look under A) • Concluded that children would not pass his test until 8 months of age o Baillergeon used looking time • Range from methodilogical to interpretation of the task( processing knowledge), • rich interpretation • lead interpretation Learning Theories 1. General learning mechanisms Associationist perspective • Behaviourism (one associationist perspectives)/ Watson Classical conditioning • Neutral stimulus (such as bell) • Conditioned stimulus ( t Operant Conditioning • Punisher -e.g. time out because it creates a consequence that causes the behaviour to be less likely Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura) • Emphasizes observation and imitation rather than reinforcement, as the primary mechanisms of development • Watching someone else get a time out rather than actually receiving that punishment • Imitation and observation • Novice watches model perform the behaviour and also performs that same behaviour o Responsibility relies on the novice • Bandura- preschool children can acquire new behaviours by watching o e.g. BoBo doll example, watching people beat up the BoBo doll and they also aggressively acted towards the BoBo doll • Group activity- outline key elements of theories 3rd theoretical perspective- Developmental/ Dynamic System Theory • Emphasis is on social learning Evolutionary psychology • Study the processes and not just the behaviour themselves. Shaped by ideas of the evolutionary history • Ethology - study of fitness enhancing behaviour o Lorenz and imprinting o Critical period- if development of certain things don’t happen within that period, then it does not develop at all ed o John Bowlby- theory of attachment; saying that animals form attachment at one period in their life • Sociobiology o Biological basis of social behaviour Cross Section Design • Studying kids at different ages • Criticisms: you are not studying specific individuals Longitudinal Design • Studying the same participant over time • Criticism: very time consuming Correlational Design • Direction indicated by negative and or positive • Strenth is indivated bythe number • You can determine relation but cannot determine causation Experimental Designs • Dependant variable: the thing that you are measuring ( for e.g.if you are studying object permanence, looking time is dependant variable) • Criticism: • Within subject: one individual • Between: comparing between two different groups and participants would participate in both groups Reliability • Degree to which independent measurements of a given behaviour are consistent Validity • Internal validity: • External validity: • Study should be high in both internal and external validity What are some pros and con of experimental and correlational design 1. Preferential looking • Duration of gazes toward one or the other of the displays • Tells you about the preferences and tells you what infants can discriminate • Head turning --> e,g. kids turning heads to novel sounds 2. Habituation • Repeated stimulus over time --> observation of infants getting bored: infant looking away, speed of heart rate slows down • Violation of expectation • We are able to know what the infant's beliefs or expectations are • The infant will look longer at an impossible event (e.g. looking at a magic show) • When expectations are violated, the infants will look longer --> fact that the infant looked longer indentifies that the infant knows the properties of the objects that are shown Techniques for Developmental Research (cont’d) • Reliability and Validity – Reliability is the consistency in repeated measures of the same variable using the same measurement method. – Validity is the extent to which a measuring technique measures the attribute that it is designed to measure. Textbook Notes Piaget's 4 Stages of Development (pg. 31) • Piaget saw development as discontinuous such as radical qualitative changes between a caterpillar and a butterfly • Sensorimotor : birth to 2 yrs (this stage divided into 6 sub-stages) - involves object permanence: when a child understands that an object still exists even when it can no longer be observed directly. This develops at around age of 8 months • Preoperational stage: Age 2-7 o Understand past and future but knowledge is very egocentric and very concrete • Concrete operational stage: Age 7-11 o When children begin to understand & use symbols o Children think less egocentric and understand concrete operations such as conservation of number, mass, liquids • Formal Operational stage: Age 12 to adulthood o Able to use symbols and relate them to abstract concepts SOURCES OF DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGE • 3 sources of developmental change: assimilation, accommodation, equilibration o Assimilation: interpreting new info in terms of previously understood theories and knowledge . For e.g. child knows about cows, sees a gazelle for first time and views it as a cow o Accommodation: process of changing ones theories , understanding or knowledge to cope with new info o Equilibration: process of balancing assimilation and accommodation to maintain a stable understanding of the world while still allowing for development SHORTING COMINGS OF PIAGET'S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY 1. Piaget greatly underestimated cognitive competence of infants and children • One could be sure that a child that passed a difficult task had the cognitive ability in question but one could not be sure that children who failed the task lacked the ability 2. Stage model is overstated • Piaget thought a child's stage determined modes of thinking in a wide # of domains and that thinking was consistent until the child moved into a new stage
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 250

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit