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PSYC 250 (50)
Lecture

ch8.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 250
Professor
Tanya Broesch
Semester
Winter

Description
Ch.8 March-12-13 2:33 PM • Concepts and milestones o Attachment o Facial imitation o Social referencing o Pretend play o Face perception o Animacy &intentionality perception o Theory of mind • Attachment o A strong emotional bond with a specific person(the mother) that is enduring across space and time. From this bond, you gain knowledge about the world and ability to take risks comes from this bond. o Attachment vs imprinting. Imprinting(the basis) is what you first start off with, first animal you see, drawn and attached to. o Harry harlow o John bowlby proposed the attachment theory • 1st porposed by Bowlby. Proposes that children are biologically predisposed( born ready to attach with others) to develop attachments with caregivers as a means of increasing the chances of their own survival. • Secure base(referring to that 1 individual)- the term for an attachment figure's presence that provides an infant or toddler with a sense of security that makes it possbile for the infant to explore the environment • Evolutionary theory would say attachment supports our need to survive • Preattachment (0-6wks) o Infant produces innate signals that bring other to his/her side and is comforted by the interactions • Attachment-in-the making (6wks-8mos) o @ 8 weeks, infants produce social smile. Smile produced by a social stimuli (e.g. when you look at baby and they smile back at you) • Clear cut attachment (8mon-1.5yrs) o Infants actively seek contact with his/her caregiver and shows separation protest or distress when the caregiver departs o 9 month revolution: when they become super social and become afraid of strangers • Reciprocal relationships(1.5yrs-2yrs) o Become increasingly social • Outcome of attachment phases o Internal working model of attachment -a mental representation of self, of attachment figures and of relationships in general • Guides childrens interactions with caregivers o First 5 years are really important in developing social and internals ties • Mary ainsworth o Started observing infants in US and Uganda o By observing a brief interaction, you can categorize the babies into attachment categories and this will be the same throughout their older years • Strange situation procedure o Had a series of episodes: • Including 2 separation and reunions with the caregiver. Behaviours were coded at separation and reunion • Secure attachment - cry and are easily consoled after the return of their mother • Separation anxiety - when infant becomes distressed after being separated by caregiver/mother --starts @ 8month peaks at 15 months and gradually fades at around 24 months • Attachment categories o Secure attachment • Child has had high quality relatively umbivalent relationship with his or her attachment figure • 2/3 of american middle class children are securely attached but only 20% of children in Germany o Insecure • Insecure resistant (or ambivalent) attachment • Infants and young children are clingy and stay close to the caregiver rather than explore the environment. 15% of american middle class children o Insecure avoidant attachment • Infants and young children seem indifferent and sometimes avoid caregiver o Disorganized and disoriented • No consistent way of coping with the distress of the strange situation • Adult attachment models o Working models of attachment in adulthood that are believed to be based upon adult's perceptions of their own childhood experiences --esp. relationships with parents • Exercise: o Securely attached • Consoled fairly easily o Insecure resistant • Very needy • Hard to console the infant o Insecure avoidant • Does not care and may not cry at all o Disorganized • Inconsistent, child will react differently each time • Infant might protest, but when mother comes back, infant will not be easily consolable, disorganized behaviour will be seen. The child might cry and once mother picks up child, they will continue to cry • Social contact as a need: Harry harlows social experiments o Harry harlow: One of the pioneers of attachment theory o Obligate social species • Infants depend on others to meet their needs o Isolation experiments • We are social species and need others to survive. o Experimental findings found healthy social and emotional attachment develop o Harry Harlow`s experiments with rhesus monkeys • Finds that we prefer comfort over food and meeting basic needs • Drawn to soft warm things • Group work o General methods and results of harlows experiments • Used
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