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Social Contexts for Development.docx

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 250
Tanya Broesch

Social Contexts for Development 3/26/2013 1:27:00 PM Different contexts of development and how that leads to various parenting strategies..  Functional/evolutionary perspectives  Social facultative adaptation What is necessary and what is “extra?” Different kinds of learning and strategies  Social learning strategies  Paying attention to regularities in the environment o Experience the world and adapt accordingly  Imitation  Teaching Facultative Adaptations Psychological Adaptations for Culture Parental Investment  What does it take to raise a child?  What would you have to change to have a baby today? o Stop schooling (child needs your attention) o Money to provide and fulfill their needs  Healthcare  Food/Clothing o Provide time to nurture them  Interaction is necessary  What is culture? o Transmission of information through social learning mechanisms (imitation, teaching) o Unique to humans o Cumulative culture (innovation on top of innovation)  One can continue building on or advancing certain knowledge rather than starting all over  Trusting one another; saves cost of individual learning.. able to transmit knowledge instead Hunter-gatherer and foraging societies are ideal for studying EEA  Have maintained stability through time  Geographical isolation allows them to preserve their culture which closely represents our EEA  Native groups are declining at fast rates (ideal for studying)  Hadza; children <5 years of age are foraging on their own and preparing their own meals  Observing mid-day meals; no parent supervision o Camp1: children were more likely to share with kin o Camp2: Children were more likely to share with non-kin  Summary; o There are social-network differences between the camps. Children exhibit altruistic behaviours at a young age !Kung Hadza Harder to find food Easier to find food Harder to find water Easier to find water Less attentive to children More attentive to children Longer birth intervals Shorter birth intervals More discipline Less discipline Children work more Children do not work until a later age Parental investment in !Kung is higher and as a result have less children.. Blurton Jones;  Parenting styles can be explained by differences in the immediate ecological circumstances rather than by culture or tradition Parental Investment theory: Theory that stresses the evolutionary basis of many aspects of parental behaviour, including the extensive investment parents make in their offspring  Parental Investment: an investment by a parent in an individual offspring that Parents and children do not have identical self-interest that leads to conflict  Two children, one apple?  Inherent conflict: Parent is equally related to each offspring but one offspring may show a greater need VIDEO: Babies: Commonalities and differences across contexts  General parenting strategies Ponijao  Mother holds child after birth  Siblings are in proximity  Natural, open environment (EEA) o Baby is breast-fed  Presence of infant-directed speech o Repetitive sounds  Child is kept close to the mother, participates in everyday activities o Physically travels close with baby  Breast-feeding at an older age  Children freely explore their environment  Mother grooms and cleans her child  Tribal songs/calls and instruments are heard by child  Experiment; trial and error learning o Learning from and with siblings Bayarjargal  Televised exercises for pregnant women  Child is taken by nurses and does not have any contact with his mother  Mother engages in infant-directed speech  Exposure to natural environment (Rooster)  Exploring hands and feet  Older sibling undertakes a position of responsibility  Tribal music is heard carefully by the child (melody/language)  Paternal care is absent Tokyo  Both parents are interacting with child (cat crawls by)  Baby girl (Mari)  Father attracts Mari’s attention by rattle but does not engage in infant-directed speech  Minimum parent-child interaction (Television is present)  Child in daycare; starts imitating other children who are crying  Bright colors, toys, variety of food, bright lights 
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