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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 280
Ollie Hulme

Chapter 6 Evolution ETM142011 PSYC 221 Evolution Naturalists: First assumed each species created separately Mid 19 Century: Research into the fossil record & diversity of living organisms convinced scientists that species evolve. Natural Selection Theory proposed by Charles Darwin & Alfred Wallace (1858) Gradually causes substantial changes in species. They evolve. Darwin Makes 3 Observations: 1. Individuals of a species vary. 2. Some variation is inherited from parents. 3. Not all individuals manage to reproduce. And 1 Inference: Those individuals who vary in ways which suit their environment are those that survive and reproduce, and thus pass them on to the next generation. Those adaptations are thus naturally selected. Physiological Adaptation: Physiology is a product of natural selection. Adaptations which have promoted survival and reproduction of ancestors. Psychological Adaptation: Psychology is a product of natural selection too. Memory, emotions, decision making, personality, language, perception, consciousness all helped ancestors survive and reproduce Mechanisms of Inheritance Laws of Inheritance: Mendel showed in pea plants how traits could be inherited down generations. De Vries showed how new variants could arise by mutation. o Most mutations are non-adaptive o Some are adaptive, therefore pass down through generations. Genetics: Watson & Crick Molecular basis of inheritance and variation DNA, the molecules passed down through reproduction that carry the information for instructions for building the organism. Tree of Life: Species genus family order class phylum kingdom
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