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PSYC 300W (11)
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 300W
Professor
V.Gordon Rose
Semester
Summer

Description
A NEO-MEDIAN APPROACH TO HUMAN AGENCY: RELATING THE SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL IN THE ONTOGENESIS OF PERSPECTIVE-CORRDINATING PERSONS 1) Free will and determinism as compatible in saying free will is self-determination and consistent with biophysical determinism and sociocultural constraints. Their ability to choose is based on their experiences and genetic makeup (biophysical/sociocultureal). “Ppl are determining and determined based on events and origins. 2) There are interactions with the rest of the world. “There are things we can change and things we can‟t change, and some of the later are deplorable” 3) “determinism doesn‟t imply inevitability for agents whose evolved nature (language, culture, reasoning, moral) is to be self – consciously reactive to their circumstances” – “self-determining with subjectively open futures and constantly emerging nature” KEY POINT NO FIXED NATURE. 4) Rational agency of the person….acting based on reasons 5) No higher reasoning  simply determining for one‟s self 6) Ppl are “social developmental emergents”  ppl represent each other and what their society is doing. 7) Agree that personal freedom comes from a deterministic background of society, how does this occur is the question. A possible theory is neo-median and based on social-psychological theorizing of George Herbert Mead. Emergence of selfhood/agency and a developmental trajectory (participation in social acts/practices = abstract perspective taking/consideration and reasoning which = agentive, self-determining persons). 8) Roadmap! 9) MEAD‟S PERSPECTIVAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF SELFHOOD AND HUMAN AGENCY a. Holistic: biophysical/sociocultural world b. Development is specifically based on interactions/activities with the world c. “throughout our lives, we act towards, and in relation to objects and other persons based on our cumulative history of direct, practical experience with them” i. This could be similar to saving face or when communicating with others  the backstage and front stage? d. Cumulative history 10) “organisms are perspectival relation to environment”  cow sees grass as good, places and smells for dogs, wood for woodworm = food and can not see it any other way BUT HUMANS are special and can see more perspectives at any one time which is why there is human agency 11) “despite always being located in a here-and-now context, humans are often aware of other spaces and times. Spaces beyond the immediate zone of perception are real for us and can motivate action…beings can be motivated by the perspectives of others.” Only within such an extended environment that self – determining choices become possible” a. But what about ppl who have tunnel visision…maybe it is they don’t want to see other aspects. But at work for example, we all want certain shifts and most ppl will only take someone else’s shift if it is convenient for them. If not they generally won’t take the shift. 12) EMERGENCE – two perspectives can merge ex. Coffee: mental stimulation and paper weight. (genuine and not simply based on essential qualities but new thinking). From interactions farmers don‟t want their potatoes but no throw away and desire from others = money 13) Self emerges through interaction: relevancy of actions from perspective of others; perspective of self and other into a single meaning.” Humans therefore base their information on others to reflect on themselves and how they would want to be treated etc. 14) “Thinking through a problem see all the possible options that we know of or past/future and alternative social perspectives; thinking involves generate new idea from past ideas” INTEGRATE AND COODINATE (PAST EXPERIENCES) SO THAT NEW RELEVANCIES EMERGE 15) So far we know what agency is based on Mead. a. Holistic in it looks at biophysical with sociocultural, perspectival relations (humans diverse views not just one like a cow and its grass), interactions with others makes our perspectives/who we are, emergence of two perspectives at a time (coffee = mental stimulant and paper weight), the accumulation of the past can emerge into new 16) Acting toward self (see our reactions) we recognize and understand ourselves as objects/authors own activity 17) “mind, selfhood and agency are not initially there at birth but arise in the process of social experience and activity”  mechanism for development of self-consciousness and selfhood – individual becoming an object to himself by taking attitudes of other individuals toward himself within an organized setting of relationships” 18) Others clarify self-consciousness and self-determination (GILLESPIE AND MARTIN) 19) THE EMERGENCE OF SELFHOOD, PERSPECTIVE COORDINATION AND AGENCY a. Position and interaction, gradual, not an ability but understanding of the world (social, interactional, institutional scaffolding) and guide gradual emergence (not stages but cumulate) 20) PHYSICAL AND PERCEPTUAL INTERACTION WITH ASSISTED TACTILE EXCHANGE (TACTILE EXPERIENCE AND PERCEPTUAL RECOVERY) a. Ever since the beginning (birth) humans interact with their word based on touch and what we can see. So for example infants act based on internal hunger or the presentation of a breast. The mother reacts to the child‟s facial expressions and grunting. So everything is very implicite and learnt over continuous presentation. “initiate the infant into a world that both supports and resists her actions, and offers an immediate, concrete basis for connecting her movements to the actions of others and the realities of objects” 21) “through perceptual recovery of others/objects” one learns to differentiate btw what can come back and what won‟t. May even be able to know before hand eventually if one will be able to recover. Learns to position based on all of these interactions that are physical and tactile. 22) ASSISTED POSITION EXCHANGE WITH OTHERS AND OBJECTS WITHIN ROUTINE INTERACTIONS (SITUATED REMEMBERANCE AND ANTICIPATION; BASIC POSITION RECOVERY) a. A baby‟s interactions become coordinated with the repetitive sequences of alternative, related positions (ex. Peek a boo or rolling a ball) 23) By being in situations and then being put in that situation the child can draw on those experiences to understand their new position (two perspectives where they are integrated) ex. Hide and seek (as a seeker is seeking but thinking of hiding and where they used to hide) a. Coordinated position exchange and pre-reflective perspective taking: based on “actions, habits, memories, anticipations” 24) POSITION EXCHANGE WITH ASSISTED ROLE EXCHANGE WITHIN PRACTICES (SELF-OTHER DIFFERENTIATION; IMITATIVE COORDINATION; ACTION „CONSEQUENTING‟) a. LANGUAGE IS KEY HERE – learn to hear self (own articulations like others) b. “language enables the movement at a psychological level btw different perspectives within the given social act” (can see in informal structure play to formal structure) c. Position exchange: here and now vs. role exchanges: move across positions defined by roles, expectations, normative cultural practices. (get meaning from sociocultural rules) 25) Enhancing self-ther more abstract understanding and imaginings, learn consequences of their role-related action in broader system 26) POSITION/ROLE EXCHANGE WITH REFLECTIVE PERSPECTIVE TAKING/COORDINATION (SIMULTANEITY OF PERSPECTIVES; DIFFERENTIATION OF PERSONS,; DOING THINGS WITH WORDS) a. Reflective intersubjectivity “take own perspective and others and have multiple perspectives and can see others are different from themselves and can start to communicate this linguistically” 27) Own perspectives will be predominate but can work towards others and considering their opinions ex. (apology) 28) Still no generalize or imaginative actions 29) IMAGINATIVE COORDINATION AND GENERALIZATION OF PERSPECTIVES AND POSSIBILITIES (GENERATION AND EVALUATION OF POSSIBILITIES; DELIBERATE PLANNING AND PROBLEM SOLVING) a. GO BEYOND intersubjectivity of interacting to 2rd person and societal perspectives to mediate sitatuons ex. Interpret rules in game to resolve dispute b. Supplements of novels, films, online, etc increase perspectives 30) Plan with matrix of perspectives and use to generate ideas and projects and plan and problem solve 31) Always there is reconstruction and therefore implicit self-criticism 32) RATIONAL AND MORAL ENGAGEMENT WITH OTHERS (ACTING FOR REASONGS AND WITH CONSIDERATION AND JUSTIFICATION) a. Transformation potential through engagement and problem solving uses imagination and rational planning: depends on spatiotemporal distanciation and consideration and moral agency. Ideals become guides, constraints, possibilities in pursuit of broad condense and communal problem solving 33) In advanced state sometimes need to separate from perspectives and systems that are unworkable and open new information (must use rational and moral traditions available to them, remain committed and engaged within such contexts of ambiguity, uncertainty and emotional upheaval that marks an agentive person” It is impossible to be totally distanciation because it is always bounded by a context or social situation 34) THE SOCIAL SCAFFOLDING OF HUMAN AGENCY a. A SUMMARY i. Physical placement/assisted positioning with routine sequences/interaction ii. Gradual emergence of tremporal and contextual constrained forms of perspective taking from earlier interactions involving position and role exchange iii. Increasingly abstracted and sophisticated rational and moral agency iv. Assisted by spatiotemporal bridging and integration supplied by imaginative planning/problem solving/cooperative engagement/creativity in challenged v. Gradual differentiation of self and others 1. First person, more distant perspectives with reason and moral concern and planning and challenging 2. Physical assistance, coaching, narratives, moral systems are important and part of the sociocultural supports for advanced and more complex perspectives 3. Self is deeply cultural 4. Agency emerges through the scaffold provided by social structures and relations a. Question how technology would play a part in this agency 35) De
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