PSYC 325 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Facial Feedback Hypothesis, Paul Ekman, Emotion

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Published on 1 Oct 2016
Department
Course
Emotional Learning and Memory
Emotional Experience
3 Components
1. A cluster of 3 distinct but interrelated phenomena
2. Physiological arousal
a. ANS activity: fight or flight
a.i. ANS→ adrenal glands release stress hormones
a.ii. E.g. epinephrine/ adrenaline, glucocorticoids (cortisol)
b. Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, blood flow to extremities, pupil dilation
3. Subjective feelings (conscious appraisals)
a. Cognitive experience
b. Perception of discrete emotions/ generalized feelings
c. Your assessment of arousal, valence, motivation
4. Overt (observable) behaviour
a. Emotional expression
b. Not entirely voluntary
c. Facial, posture, vocalizations touch
Theories
1. James Lange theory of emotion
a. Somatic theories of emotion
a.i. Physiological responses to stimuli come first and theses determine or induce
emotions
a.ii. Facial feedback hypothesis
b. Conscious feelings of emotion occur when the mind sense the physiological response
associated with ea or some other kind of arousal
c. Emotional stimulus→ bodily responses (arousal) → conscious emotional feelings
d. Critique:
d.i. Can experience arousal without experiencing emotion
d.ii. How can conscious mind determine which emotion is being signaled by
physiological responses (heart rate increase→ fear/ anger/ sexual excitement
2. Cannon Bard theory of emotion
a. Emotional stimuli simultaneously evoke both bodily response (arousal) and COnscious
emotional feelings
3. 2 factor theory
a. Schachter and Singer
b. A combination of cognitive appraisal and perception of biological changes tgt determine
experience of emotion
c. Emotional stimulus
c.i. →bodily response (arousal)
c.ii. → Cognitive appraisal
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c.ii.1. → conscious emotional feelings
d. High bridge study, horror movies
Discrete, Universal Emotions
1. Paul Ekman
a. 6 universally recognized emotions
b. Adaptive and hardwired form birth
c. Happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear, surprise (other: shame, interset, pride)
2. Display rules: cul expectations dictating when expressing/ withholding emotions is
acceptable
3. Emotions are Natural Kinds
a. Real, distinct, categories in nature
b. Emotional stimulus → evokes → basic (discrete) emotion→
Subjective feelings: terror, scared, unpleasantness
Facial expression
Vocalization: scream, cry
Autonomic activity: flight or fight response
Observable behaviour: freeze, run away → learning and memory
b.i.1. Classical conditioning: faster, more robust
b.i.2. Operant conditioning: rapid R-O association formation
b.i.3. Learned helplessness
b.i.4. Episodic and flashbulb memories: greater encoding, retrieval, (over)
confidence
b.i.5. Amygdala and frontal lobe dependence: response generation and
regulation
4. Barrett
a.
Assessing Emotion in Animals
1. Fear is ubiquitous: initial freezing ,autonomic elevation
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