PSYC 325 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Eyeblink Conditioning, Classical Conditioning, Drug Tolerance

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Published on 1 Oct 2016
Department
Course
Classical Conditioning
Conditioning Paradigms
1. The formation of an association between
a. A neutral cue stimulus that initially evokes no response
b. An impending (upcoming) stimulus that naturally/ innately evokes a response
b.i. It evokes a response before the scientists starts messing with that animal)
2. Aim: formation of an anticipatory response that prepared an animal to deal with impending
stimulus
Model
1. Neutral cue
a. Neutral: not yet been conditioned, not associate with other stimulus
b. Presented by researcher/ encountered in env
c. E.g. bell ding, angry face, flashing light
2. Unconditioned stimulus
a. Unconditioned = Evokes a responses naturally (unconditionally), not equal neutral
b. Presented by researcher, or encountered in env
c. E.g. sugar, loud noise1
3. Unconditioned response
a. Evoked unconditionally by US
b. E.g. spinal reflexes, blinking, change in heart rate
4. Result
a. The mental cue has a predictive association unconditioned stimulus
b. US evokes UR
5. After multiple trials
a. Mental cue→ conditioned stimulus
a.i. Evokes conditioned response
a.i.1. Prepares animal for impending US
a.i.2. cued/ evoked by CS associated with US through repeated pairing
a.ii. CR→ anticipatory activity→ US
b. US evokes UR
Appetitive Conditioning
1. Pavlov’s Dog
a. US food→ UR salvation
b. CS bell→ CR conditioned salvation
2. Quell sex
a. US sexualy available ternate→ UR approach, mounting, copulation
b. CS light→ CR approach
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Aversive Conditioning
1. Fly shock / odor conditioning paradigm
a. US shock → UR attempt to escape
b. CS odors→ CR attempt to escape
2. Conditioned emotional response
a. US shock: physically painful stimulus→ UR freezing
b. CS tone→ CR freezing
3. Eyeblink conditioning
a. US airpuff: a frightening stimulus→ UR blink
b. CS tone→ CR blink
Conditioned Compensatory Response
1. When the CR evoked by a CS is the opposite of the UR
a. Driving mechanism behind drug tolerance, and maj factor in overdose
a.i. Response less based on the association of the drug
a.ii. Adrenaline injection experiments (US)
Extinction
1. Breaking the asso between CS and US through repeated CS only presentation
2. Can only be extinct when there is an association
3. Inhibition, not elimination of response
4. After extinction, relearn conditioning more faster
5. Building new association is harder than re establishing extinct ones
a. Response inhibition rather elimination
b. Saving effect
c. State spaced
c.i. Learning associations within different contexts
c.ii. Animals learn different rules for different contexts
Timing Issues
1. Delayed eyeblink conditioning
a. Delay the offset of CS
2. Trace eyeblink conditioning
3. Optimal interval: 0.5 seconds→ most ideal
a. Sensory memory
4. Decrease gradually → cannot form association eventually
5. Contiguity of space and time are necessary but not sufficient to establish a CS-US
association
a. Blocking paradigm
b. Formation determined by information value
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