PSYC 325 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex, Auditory Cortex, Cerebral Cortex

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1. Names, locations, functions of key brain structures that will be relevant to learning and memory
2. Name and describe functions of cells, neurotransmitters
3. Categorize different methods of imaging the brain, and identify some strengths and weakness of
these methods
4. Apply this knowledge to better understand the underlying biology of learning and memory
1. Most early studies of learning and memory focused on observable b rather than on the brain and
how it functions
2. Gall: phrenology
3. Karl Lashley 1890-1958
a. Engram
a.i. Silver bullet physical change
a.ii. No one specific area he can demage to completely erase an ability
b. Equipotentiality 1929
b.i. Memories are not stored in any one place
4. Memories, leaning and other brain functions are both localized and distributed
a. Achieved through dynamic rerouting of neural networks, aka. plasticity
1. Study of the brain and the rest of the nervous system
a. Neuropsychology (cognitive-neuroscience): brains and b
2. Nervous system
a. The organ system devoted to the distribution and processing of information
b. Neurons (and glial cells)
b.i. Collect incoming info from sensory organs of the system and the rest of the body,
process the info, react to it by coordinating body’s responses
c. Chemicals and electricity as currency
3. Orienting terminology
a. Rostral/ anterior vs Causal/ posterior
b. Dorsal vs Ventral
c. Medial
d. Lateral
e. Section
e.i. Coronal: separate front and back
e.ii. Sagittal: separate left and right
e.iii. Transverse/ horizontal: separate top and bottom
Central Nervous System CNS
1. Brain and the spinal cord
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Cerebral Cortex
1. Cover the top and sides of the brain
2. The largest structure of human brain
3. Extensively folded
4. 2 hemispheres: R/ L
5. Frontal lobe
a. Primary motor strip M1
a.i. End portion of frontal
b. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC
b.i. Learning, planning, organization
6. Parietal lobe
a. Somatosensory S1
a.i. First part of parietal
7. Occipital lobe
a. Vision: primary, low level visions, color, location
8. Temporal lobe
a. Primary auditory cortex
Subcortical Structures
1. Under cerebral cortex
2. Thalamus
a. Receive sensory info from the PNS and relays the info to appropriate sensory cortex
a.i. Except smell
a.ii. Gateway through which almost all sensory info enters the brain
b. Primary sensory
3. Basal ganglia
a. Group of structures important for planning and producing skilled movements
4. Hippocampus
a. Inside the temporal lobe
b. For learning new declarative memories
5. Amygdala
a. At the tip of hippocampus
b. Adds emotional content to memories
6. Cingulate cortex
a. Performance monitoring
b. Process info from lower structure
c. Handle sense of pain?
7. Corpus callosum, Optic nerve, Orbitofrontal cortex, Olfactory nerve
1. Behind and below cerebral cortex
2. Coordination of movement
a. Low level, fine detail motor, balance
b. Learning that involves physical action
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