PSYC 325 Lecture 5: Week 5

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Transient Memory
Objectives
1. Demonstrate understanding of transient memory (sensory and working/ ST) by:
a. Describing their proposed functions, characteristics and neutral substrates
b. Identifying key similarities and difference between them, and LT memory system
c. Explain the broader role of Executive Processing in cognition and conscious awareness
2. Describe in detail a plausible conceptual model of human memory
Memory
1. Transient acquisition from environment
2. Long-term storage
3. Metamemory: active and deliberate retention, recollection or suppression
Transient Memory
1. Short lasting mental representations
2. Atkinson-Shiffrin 1968
a. 2 stage cognitive model
a.i. How info enters consciousness and potentially LTM
a.ii. Input
a.iii. Sensory memory
a.iii.1. Visual, Auditory, Haptic
a.iii.2. Massive capacity, rapid decay
a.iii.2.a. Conscious accessibility limited by working memory capacity
a.iv. → Attention→
a.v. STM: temporary working memory
a.v.1. Control processes: Rehearsal, Coding, Decision, Retrieval strategies
a.vi. LTM: permanent
Behaviour Process
Sensory Memory
1. Echoic memory
a. Sensory memory that last in memory without us totally conscious about it
b. Auditory and visual sensory info
c. Conclusion: sensory memory exists
2. Sperling 1960 Partial reporting task
a. Flashing some letters on screen at the same time
b. Total recall vs cued reporting
b.i. Cued post hoc (after stimulus)
b.ii. Higher success rate at recalling with cued reporting than total recall
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c. Findings
c.i. Attention can be directed post hoc
c.ii. More sensor info is encoded that we realized
d. Conclusion: sensory memory exists
Working Memory
1. STM: the active and temporary representation of info that is maintained for the the short
term in mids to help indi think and allow indi to decide what to do next
2. William James
a. The essence of conscious awareness
a.i. Limited capacity, effortlessly available and fleeting
a.ii. Multimodal
a.ii.1. Responsible for dealing with multiple/ all sensory info
a.ii.2. Handling incoming sensory info + grabig info from LTM bank
STM/ WM LTM
Active contents of consciousness Not currently in consciousness
Access is rapid Access is slower
Capacity is limited � Capacity is unlimited
Forgotten quickly Forgotten more slowly
3. � George Miller 1956
a. Digit span & magic number 7 +/- 2
a.i. 7 number can hold in WM
a.ii. Intelligent = able to hold more digits in WM?
b. Meaningfulness
b.i. A limit in the number of unique concepts/links to LTM that could be held active
b.i.1. Not an absolute amount of info
b.ii. Chunking: ppl have larger digit span/ are better at chunking
Cognitive Control and the Central Executive
1. The manipulation and application of WM for planning, task switching, attention, stimulus
selection and the inhibition of inappropriate reflexive b
2. Baddeley & Hitch 1974
a. Mental sandbox
a.i. Collects sensory inputs, activates relevant LTMs, and transforms info
b. Maintenance vs manipulation
b.i. Material specific buffers
b.i.1. Handle maintenance and manipulation
b.i.2. Capacities limited but independent
b.ii. Different from SM
b.ii.1. Grab info from SM and process it
b.ii.2. A place where info is hold so we can work on it
c. 2 independent short term memory buffers
c.i. Phonological loop
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