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PSYC 325 Lecture Notes - Leading Edge, Metamemory, Karijotas

Course Code
PSYC 325
Mario Liotti

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Ch 9 Lec 7
- Our knowledge and awareness of our own cognitive processes
- Our knowledge and awareness of our own memory processes. (“I know the names of every
president of the US, but just a few UK prime ministers”. We know what we know and what
we don’t know. A knowledge of our own memory)
- Monitoring
o Our ability to reflect and become aware of what we know and what we do not
(thermostat analogy)
o Accuracy
When you think you know something, you do know it, and vice versa
o Control
Our ability to regulate our learning or retrieval based on our own
monitoring (studying for 2 classes, realize one is hopeless, focus on other)
- Example, who wants to be a millionaire, how do you decide between lifelines, by the extent
to which you are sure you know the answer
Metamemory Judgements
- The subjective reports that people give to indicate whether they think they have learned or
can retrieve any target memory
- Ease-of-Learning judgements
o Estimates of how likely an item will be remembered in advance of actual studying.
They are predictions about how difficult that item will be to learn
- Judgements of Learning
o Judgements (made during study) of whether the item has been learned already
o Main judgement that researchers use to study metacognition during encoding
o Why study JOL?
Likely that many people implicitly make JOL during learning and that JOL
directly affect our choices when we sit down and decide how we are going
to learn/prepare for exam
If people naturally use JOL to guide their study, it is important to know if
they are accurate and if that accuracy can be improved
For experimentalists, JOL offer an advantage over FOK and TOT= JOL can be
made on all items, not just those that remain unrecalled
o Studied 2 ways

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Cue-target. Present them and ask subject to predict if that item will be
recalled later when presented with only cue (ask them while showing both)
Cue-only. Present participant with only cue when asking to predict if they
will be able to recall later
More accurate at predicting future test performance (if there is a
delay between initial study of the pair and the JOL). Just a few
minutes can raise the accuract of JOL to close to perfect.
o Called Delayed JOL Effect
o Delayed JOL Effect
Dunlosky argues that if subject retrieves the target at the time of JOL, they
are also likely to retrieve it at the time of test
so the JOL is kind of like a test run for the test. This is called the
Monitoring Dual-memories hypothesis
this cannot occur with cue-target JOL because target is already
Spellman argued that testing yourself is a powerful method. So whenever
we engage in JOL, we are implicitly testing ourselves if we recall target
during JOL, we are giving it a boost in memory strength. This is similar to the
testing effect (a testing trial produces better learning than a study trial)
o Factors influencing JOL
Delayed JOL involved accuracy, the following involve confidence
Fluency and speed of retrieval
High and low JOL were made quickly and fluently, intermediate JOL
hard but possible to retrieve, received the longest response times
When cue-only JOL were made under speeded conditions,
judgements were influenced by cue familiarity, but when not timed,
the factors that influenced the memorability also influenced JOL
Easily learned- easily remembered
Where is the item on the serial position curve. JOL higher for items in
primacy and recency
o Brain Mechanisms for JOL
Ventromedial, lateral, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex.
Patients with frontal lobe damage less accurate on JOL
- Feeling-of-Knowing judgements
o Estimations (at retrieval) of the likelihood that an unrecalled item will be recognized
o Similar to TOT except you won’t necessarily recall it soon (may recognize)
o How to examine it:
o Recall-judgement-recognition (RJR)
First used by Joseph Hart
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