PSYC 325 Lecture 6: PSYC 325 lecture 6

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30 Sep 2015
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15-05-27
1
LECTURE 6
CHAPTER 6
Generalization and
Discrimination Learning
May 28, 2015
Outline: Generalization and Discrimination
Learning
Behavioral processes
When Similar Stimuli Predict Similar Consequences
When Similar Stimuli Predict Different Consequences
When Dissimilar Stimuli Predict the Same Consequence
Brain substrates
Cortical Representations and Generalization
Generalization and the Hippocampal Region
Using the past to cope with the present
Need to respond to stimuli that are completely novel
Rather than respond randomly, use prior experience with
stimuli we have encountered.
Present Decision
Memory of Past
?
Using the past to cope with the present
Two basic ways of using these past experiences:
1.Generalization: transferring past experiences to new
situations
2.Discrimination: the perception of differences between stimuli
Present Decision
?
=
=
Generalize
Discriminate
Prediction
MT: 47 mc and 3 short answer
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15-05-27
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Using the past to cope with the present
The right balance:
Specificity: applying the past narrowly; discriminating
Generality: applying the past broadly; generalizing
Present Decision
?
=
=
Generalize
Discriminate
Prediction
Generalization vs. Discrimination
Generalization in Learning
Sensitization: Chapter 3
Classical conditioning: Chapter 4
Operant conditioning: Chapter 5
Similar Stimuli Can Predict Similar Consequences
Training: Yellow light ! Peck ! Food Reinforcement
Test: presented with novel lights of different colors
Rate of responding recorded for training and test
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9
Similar Stimuli Can Predict Similar Consequences
Generalization gradient—graph showing how physical
changes in stimuli correspond to behavioral response
changes.
Responding is highest for physically similar stimuli
Responding is less for less similar stimuli
10
Similar Stimuli Can Predict Similar Consequences
Represents a default balance between generalization and
discrimination
Default balance can be modified by experience
Generalization
Discrimination
11
The Challenge of Incorporating Similarity into
Learning Models
Animals clearly respond to stimuli based on similarity with
past experience
How can similarity be captured in a formal model of
learning?
Depends on how stimuli are represented
4 different systems for representation
Based on the idea of network models
Network Models
Stimulus is represented by a set of nodes or stimulus
elements
EX: Connectionist model
- physical changes to stimuli corresponds to the behavioural changes
- higher amount of responding to physically similar stimuli
- responding is less for less similar stimuli
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