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Attention 3 - Speech & Attention.pdf

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 330
Richard Wright

3 - Speech & Attention January-22-13 8:36 AM 1950's: first credibleresearch done • Times of grandparents? It was a different time back then I. First attempts to study limitationof attention to speech • Hearing vs. listening:abilityto perceive stimuli vs. abilityto process • How much auditory inputs can be processed at the sametime? ○ Rememberboom in behaviourism:"we can't progress much as a science if we only analyze retrospective verbal reports → study the observable" ○ Motivated by pilot using radio communication WWII (lots of people talking over one channel + lots of things going on in surrounding) • What kindsof equipment was availableto researchers in the 1950's? ○ Headphones (recently invented), magnetic tape (~1948) ○ Stethoscope with an input for each ear • Cocktail party effect: in a situation with lots of people talking, A istalking to B, three things happen: (1) Perception: B hears everything but segregatesounds into different speech streams (2) Block out other speech stream and focus on A (regardlessof the volumeof crowd) (3) Still cues in to keywords that maysurface in crowd noise [e.g.,hearing your namein a crowd whileyou're talking to someone] • How does the brain focus only on relevant input… whileat the same timemonitoring other irrelevantinputs? ○ What happens to speech we block out? ○ e.g.,givethem 2 speech stream but ask them to pay attention to one ○ e.g.,sitting on the bus, you can hear the people speaking around you. Even if you pay attention to your friend (talking to you), how much of the surrounding sound is processed for meaning? • Dichotic listening test: giveindividualearphone with a different passagein each ear. Havethem attend to only one. When they shadow it, they'll have some"um" and "uh" • Purpose of shadowing:(repeating the attended message)so we can makesure they're attending to the passage ○ Phrase shadowing: listeningto several words before repeating ○ Phonemic shadowing:repeat each sound as it isbeing heard  More preferable when you want P to attend lessto the unattended task (b/c phonemic is harder to do, so they will be lesslikelyto listento the other) ○ Harder to distinguishisthe voices are similar • What aspect of the unattended speech do we notice? ○ GiveP a memorytest, P will be able to ableto answer QS about attended passage ○ For unattended, will notice physical properties (male/femalevoice, volume), but not content/meaning • Why mightthere be better memoryfor messagepresented to the right ear? (resultswere statisticallysignificant) → b/c languagearea tends to be in the left hemisphere • Why were dichotic listening experimentsincompatible with Behaviourism? → auditory selection is not observable is not observable ○ Even though shadowing tried to compensate; people can get practiced at shadowing and end up paying attention to unattended • The black box: "the mind" ○ In behaviourism,interest is what the input is (to giveparticular output) ○ In cognitive, the interest iswhat's going on in the box (whether there were smallerboxes insidethe black box) II. Broadbent and the filtermetaphor • Broadbent was the first to propose attention model (filtermetaphor) ○ b/c peoplecouldn't remembermuch about the unattended message(e.g.,even though the languageswitched twice, was reversed, repeated a word frequently[+"banana" every few words], etc.) • Dichotic listening to both stimuliof the similarcontext (R: 7,4,1; L: 3,2,5) yet the order came out as 741325 (in groups, not the order that it was presented) • Shannon: earlyproponent of information theory • Y tube gating mechanism: informationfrom one ear will pass through before taking information from the other ear (that there's a bottleneck in our brain) • → early selection model III. Early selection or Late selection A. Early selection model (Broadbent) ○ All speech streams are perceived (pass sensory buffer;echoic memory) ○ Attention selection (filter)blocks out the streams other than the attended one ○ Semantic analysis: processing meaning of the speech ○ It then moves on to be stored in long term memory ○ Each represents a littlebox in the black box  Impact of Broadbent's model was tremendous ○ Critic: it would not account for cocktail effect of hearing your nameacross the room → wrong but still important  b/c it stimulateda lot of research (people replicating it t
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