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Attention 4 - Vision

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PSYC 330
Richard Wright

4 - Vision & Attention January-29-13 8:30 AM Today • Looking but not seeing o__ O • Lots of drivingexamples→ e.g.,less motorcycle-car accident in the city eventhough there's more motorcycle in the city; perhaps they're more used to it. From last class • Visual selection : ○ Multiplevisual input → sensory buffer →attention selection & visual meaning analysis →long term memory → attended object ○ A stage by stage copy of the auditory selection I. SelectiveReading • For reading,you can present words in 2 colours & have P read one colour, with the different colours in (1) alternating words, or (2) alternating lines ○ Similarto dichotic listening task (different messagein each ear → P tend to attend to one & ignorethe other) • What did subjects rememberabout the unattended message? ○ Physical properties: colour, lowercase font ○ Salient words: (low threshold stimuli)own name, words of interest • What mighteye movementtracking tell us about selectivereading? ○ (Tracking where eyesare looking towards) ○ P are reading lines they're asked to attend to, but occasionally flickeron other lines (esp. salient word) ○ More precise way of seeing what people are paying attention to ○ (more on eye movements later inthe course) • What ifwe reduced the need for eye movement? ○ From motivation to control for eye movements → can put the stimuli inthe same location → overlapthem! II. Looking but not seeing-- overlapping stimuli • Language modulein audio (what if you don't understand the language?)complication! Get rid of it! → geometric shapes (something simple) • If you could see in front and behind you at the sametime, how clear would it be? ○ Mirror apparatus to test this o__O (it looks like a horrifying helmet)with half-silvermirror (mirrorlike but still transparent). To be fair, this wasn't an actual experiment, he just built it. ○ Chameleonscan do it, but they also walksuper slow(trade off?) → perhaps ifP had it from birth? ○ e.g.,window at night, you can see your own reflection as well as outside → watch your neighbour's car get trashed vs. focus on the chainsaw murdererbehind you • Overlapping words of differentcolours (Filth vs. Thief) • Neisser-- developed overlapping videomethods ○ Btw: he wrote "CognitivePsychology", which gavethe nameof this field ○ Like old school TV when the signalsfor the channels overlap ○ (1) hand slapping gamevideo overlapping with (2) ball passing gamevideo  When asked to click the button everytime there's a successful (1) hand slap or (2) ball  When asked to click the button everytime there's a successful (1) hand slap or (2) ball pass, P does very well in ignoringother scene and accurately count  When asked to count both, P missdetails ○ When asked to attend (1) with unexpected event in (2) (they put ball down and "air pass"), most P don't notice  Or attend to (2) whilepeople shook hands in (1) • Inattentionalblindness ○ Intentional limitation(likeevolvedto focus on what's important) ○ Watch overlapping ball video and have them focus on (1) how manytimes white team pass the ball  When a lady with an umbrellawalks across the screen, P don't notice ○ Watch the people play ball passing game(no overlap)and a gorillaor person with umbrella walksacross the screen → similarfindings(P don't notice gorillaor person with umbrella) • Overlapping nonsense figures ○ Taking meaning analysisout of the equation ○ "Rate how pleasing the red figureis." → "recognize which shapes you saw" (force choice recognition: "of A or B, which one did you see")  Rememberedthe one them attended, but no the unattended one ○ Critic: [limitedattention or limitedmemory]perhaps P did process the unattended, but over time of study (~1 min)P forgot it → then it's a memory problem  However, this wasn't the case for shapes that were familiar(e.g.,house, tree) ○ Do we notice the gaps in unattended figure?(a linearshape with holes)  Later, ask what they rememberabout the unattended one, the shape with no holes was preferred → they didn't actually process the unattended figure(details) • What isa head-updisplay? → information isdisplayed on a surface (e.g.,windshield)(e.g.,on a plane, in high end Mercedes) ○ Supposed to makevisual processes more effective b/c pilot won't need to look down on dashboard ○ Not so bad when you're flying the plane (not likethere's other planes turning left that you have to look out for) ○ But when landing?Tested on 747 (militarytraining/ experience) → many P crashed into taxing jets ○ → they're not as safe as they were supposed to be! What about all the littlegadgets in cars? (e.g.,GPS) ○ Overconfidence at how much information we can take in III. Negativeeffect of priming • [Positive]Primingwith words: response to the first givenword will affect response to the second word ○ Lexical decisiontask: "is this a word or not a word" task ○ IS CAT A WORD? WHAT ABOUT FNE? ○ Faster if the current word is semanticallyrelated to a word on a previous trial  e.g.,hot dog in (1), hamburger in (2) • No memoryof unattended shapes = early selection? ○ P don't rememberunattended audio message'smeaning, sort of replicated in visual tests ○ This would be consistent with early selection  Sensory buffer → attentional selection → object recognition → long term memory  Where attentional selection comes before recognition • Tipper -- negativepriming
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