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Lecture

Attention 2 - Neuroscience Methods

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 330
Professor
Richard Wright

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(Esp. Pre-frontal) area that controls attention processing; control centre for planning
Frontal
Can't use monkey's as efficiently, b/c we're not that similar
On anterior part, sematic sensory cortex --> process touch
Parietal
Lots of work done with animals (we are similar to monkeys on occipital & temporal
lobe)
Occipital: Visual area
Most well known for Auditory area, but also involved in visual processing among
other things
e.g., damage in this area --> deficit in processing spaces, even though you can see it
Temporal
Lobes
Macaque (Rhesus monkey): small brain, not as convoluted, but with physical similarities
Animal research
Egyptians: did autopsy, so they had a sense of what damage on one side of brain does to other
side of body. Other than that, autopsy weren't commonly performed
Explained why cortical layer is so convoluted --> it's to make brain more dense and packed
into small cranium
Grey & white matter: the cortex is only the grey matter (outer layer); white layer is the
connective tissue (myelinated)
Even scientists at the time rejected this, but it caught on with the lay people (even
government); slowed down research to localize b/c it was so ridiculous
However, also phrenology (less magnificent) --> brain size theories have been debunked.
Differences between brains should be expected (like fingerprints).
1800's: Gall's magnificent proposal
Put lesions in different areas of rat brain, trying to systematically damage their abilities to
work maze puzzle. Couldn't find memory area --> concluded that memory must be
throughout brain (no specialized area)
--> we now know that memory (like other cog functions) are spread out. Perhaps Lashley
managed to damage one but the others were still functional
Lashley (lesion methods)
People in the field would dismiss research/approaches in that area
BUT there is localization! (Broca: language production area)
1900-fMRI: Backlash: pessimism about cognitive localization
Got sensory area pretty accurate, but less so for the more cognitive things
All in all, not very lucky/well until fMRI
1957: Singular cell recording
Searching for brain locations of mental processesI.
~1745: Leyden Jar: people don't really understand how electricity works, but Leyden Jar stores
electric charge (through static electricity)
The dead frog experiment. Let's ZAP THE FROG, and the leg moved.
--
> "the leg runs on
Galvani's shocking discovery: that there is some for m of electricity inside animals/people
The Brain Neural ElectricityII.
2
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Neuroscience Methods & Attention
January-15-13
8:31 AM
P330 Attention Page 1

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Description
2 - Neuroscience Methods & Attention January-15-13 8:31 AM • Lobes ○ Frontal  (Esp. Pre-frontal) area that controls attention processing; control centre for planning ○ Parietal  Can't use monkey's as efficiently, b/c we're not that similar  On anterior part, sematic sensory cortex --> process touch ○ Occipital: Visual area  Lots of work done with animals(we are similarto monkeys on occipital & temporal lobe) ○ Temporal  Most well known for Auditory area, but also involvedin visual processing among other things  e.g.,damage in this area --> deficit in processing spaces, even though you can see it • Animal research ○ Macaque (Rhesus monkey): smallbrain, not as convoluted, but with physical similarities I. Searching for brain locations of mental processes • Egyptians: did autopsy, so they had a sense of what damageon one side of braindoes to other side of body. Other than that, autopsy weren't commonly performed • 1800's: Gall's magnificent proposal ○ Explained why cortical layer isso convoluted --> it's to make brainmore dense and packed into small cranium ○ Grey & white matter: the cortex is only the greymatter (outer layer); white layeris the connective tissue (myelinated) ○ However, alsophrenology (lessmagnificent) --> brain size theories havebeen debunked. Differences between brains should be expected (likefingerprints).  Even scientists at the timerejected this, but it caught on with the laypeople (even government); sloweddown research to localizeb/c it was so ridiculous • Lashley (lesion methods) ○ Put lesions in different areas of rat brain, trying to systematicallydamage their abilitiesto work maze puzzle. Couldn't find memoryarea --> concluded that memory must be throughout brain (no specializedarea) ○ --> we now know that memory(likeother cog functions) are spread out. Perhaps Lashley managedto damage one but the others were still functional • 1900-fMRI: Backlash: pessimismabout cognitive localization ○ Peoplein the fieldwould dismissresearch/approaches in that area ○ BUT there is localization! (Broca: languageproduction area) • 1957: Singularcell recording ○ Got sensory area pretty accurate, but less so for the more cognitive things ○ All in all, not verylucky/welluntil fMRI II. The BrainNeural Electricity • ~1745: Leyden Jar: peopledon't reallyunderstand how electricityworks, but Leyden Jar stores electric charge (through static electricity) • Galvani's shocking discovery:that there is some for m of electricityinside animals/people The dead frog experiment. Let's ZAP THE FROG, and the leg moved. --> "the leg runs on ○ The dead frog experiment. Let's ZAP THE FROG, and the leg moved. --> "the leg runs on electricity?" (peopledidn't know about Neurons b/c Cajal didn't come along til 1800's) • Reviewtravellingof electric charge (ions), synapse, etc. • Mid 1900's: single cell recording propped up (for studying neural electricity) --> more studying of brains ○ Insert microelectrode into an area (where neuron might be). Active axons will cause change in electric charge (displayedon oscilloscope) ○ Will fireto stimuli the cellsare sensitiveto (e.g.,colour for colour/visual neurons) ; Action potentials are reallyquick (millisecond) ○ When monkey is paying attention to something, there is more firing of neurons in parietal lobe ○ Electricallystimulate an area to observe what reaction occurs • Combinemicro stimulation & singlecell recording: ○ Electricallystimulate FEF (eyemovement area) caused found changes in V4 (colour sensitive area) --> find which areas are associated/related ○ Systematicallybreaking down the complex system (liketaking parts of a car to see how it works) • Modern Lesion Method (chemical deactivation) ○ Reversible,so it's lessharmful; slows/inhibitsslowing down firing of AP ○ Previously,damaging an area that causes deficit in performance maynot mean it's the main area, could be just the bridgefor reaction --> less precise ○ Use2 or 3 different kinds of experiment to reciprocate data, makesit more accurate to overcome limitations ○ Will need animal to study areas reallydeep in the brain • 1920'
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