(Esp. Pre-frontal) area that controls attention processing; control centre for planning
Can't use monkey's as efficiently, b/c we're not that similar
On anterior part, sematic sensory cortex --> process touch
Lots of work done with animals (we are similar to monkeys on occipital & temporal
Occipital: Visual area○
Most well known for Auditory area, but also involved in visual processing among
e.g., damage in this area --> deficit in processing spaces, even though you can see it
Macaque (Rhesus monkey): small brain, not as convoluted, but with physical similarities ○
Egyptians: did autopsy, so they had a sense of what damage on one side of brain does to other
side of body. Other than that, autopsy weren't commonly performed
Explained why cortical layer is so convoluted --> it's to make brain more dense and packed
into small cranium
Grey & white matter: the cortex is only the grey matter (outer layer); white layer is the
connective tissue (myelinated)
Even scientists at the time rejected this, but it caught on with the lay people (even
government); slowed down research to localize b/c it was so ridiculous
However, also phrenology (less magnificent) --> brain size theories have been debunked.
Differences between brains should be expected (like fingerprints).
1800's: Gall's magnificent proposal•
Put lesions in different areas of rat brain, trying to systematically damage their abilities to
work maze puzzle. Couldn't find memory area --> concluded that memory must be
throughout brain (no specialized area)
--> we now know that memory (like other cog functions) are spread out. Perhaps Lashley
managed to damage one but the others were still functional
Lashley (lesion methods)•
People in the field would dismiss research/approaches in that area○
BUT there is localization! (Broca: language production area)○
1900-fMRI: Backlash: pessimism about cognitive localization•
Got sensory area pretty accurate, but less so for the more cognitive things ○
All in all, not very lucky/well until fMRI○
1957: Singular cell recording •
Searching for brain locations of mental processesI.
~1745: Leyden Jar: people don't really understand how electricity works, but Leyden Jar stores
electric charge (through static electricity)
The dead frog experiment. Let's ZAP THE FROG, and the leg moved.
Galvani's shocking discovery: that there is some for m of electricity inside animals/people•
The Brain Neural ElectricityII.
Neuroscience Methods & Attention