Attention – oct 24 th
PART 1 – Covert orienting (no body movements) .. invisible
PART 2 – studying covert orienting with location cueing
PART 3 – voluntary and reflexive attention shifts
PART 4 – how broadly (and narrowly) can we distribute
PART 6 –
PART 1: OVERT AND COVERT ORIENTING
- when something is overt, you can notice it. It is visible. – but covert orienting is
something you can view, its like peripheral vision. Think about this when you play
sports, you want to have your peripheral vision attending all around you, as well as
driving a car.
Covert Orienting – why not just move our eyes?
Attention shifts are faster, the eye movement that we most commonly make are
saccadic eye movements and we can only make 4 in a minute or something
Visual processing is suspended briefly when we move our eyes (15-20ms) Frozen
frame when our eyes are in motion. Its far more efficient to shift our attention
without making an eye movement
First studying in the 1800’s – Herman Von Helmholtz. (richard wrights scientific
hero) .. so many things for perception, he tends not to get credit cause it was so long
ago. He was the kind of professor, in order to make lectures more interesting, he
would try to do a test of something a couple days before.
- attention orienting, he built a box. To see if he could keep his eyes on
something while noticing something else. (the spark) .. the card is in the
visible pin hole, and theres a
- the yellow circle is imaginary. It was only visible for the time the inside of the
box was illuminated.
- What he found was that the letters were most visible where he shifted his
attention, NOT THE CENTER
- He concluded that we have two different focal points, 1. Where our eyes are
focused the ocular focus, and 2. Where our attention is focused the
attentional focus. – things are CLEARER in our attentional focus.
This study is replicated, on the computer. Focal point in the center.
PART 2: LOCATION CUEING
This kind of studying stopped cause of BEHAVIOURISM. Using location cues in the
1960’s, the simple tasks tho really began in the 70’s.
- auditory location cueing. This study shows that in 1960 people were already
using location cues.
- Visual location cueing, - examples of location cueing in the 60’s
Developed a location cueing task – Micheal P