Nov. 7/2013 – ATTENTION (chap 8)
Part 1 – When does searching require attention? Spotlight almost like a spot
welder, what the spotlight does is it glues together important feature information.
(all the features of an object, size, color etc). This is for a target that is hard to find.
This is when ATTENTION IS REQUIRED
Part 2 – Serial and parallel search. Easy search and hard search, maybe the easy
search involves something called parallel search, and hard search might involve
Part 3 – Gluing features together. Eye movements and attention as well, visual
search involves eye movements.
Part 4 – Why do we move our eyes
Part 5 – Monitoring eye movements.
Part 6 – Attention disengages during some types of eye movements
Where’s Waldo. All lectures on visual search changed after this puzzle came out. It
really helped explain why some things are hard to find and some things easier to
find than others.
- if something is easier to find, its because it has a UNIQUE feature and it
stands out. Hard to find objects require a lot of our attention! Anytime you’re
looking around in the world, you are SEARCHING for something for whatever
it is you want to do next.
- Examples, looking for the ignition in our car, looking for the
Searching for hard-to-find targets – there’s a benefit from this.. CAMOFLAUGE.
- this is used in animals and military.
This is the opposite of camouflage, when you’re out at night you want to be seen.
Serial and parallel search.. a visual search experiment from 1892. People were
thinking about the same sorts of questions back then
1960 – Neisser: practice effect, he also studied visual search.
- TARGET AND DISTRACTORS. – finding the Z, in the left one the distractors were
circular and the target (z) was angular, so it was easier to find. But in the right one
the distractors are angular as well so it makes it harder to find the target.
POP OUT! – in a funeral everyone has a black umbrella but Maude has a yellow
umbrella and bam! She pops out.
Is the target present of absent, yes or no. this is a type of search task.
In another one all the subjects have to say is whether
- Targets with unique features WILL POP OUT. Some feature differences are
more salient than others, such as COLOR. That target with a different color
will pop out more likely than a target with a different shape.
- There is a study
- Targets without a unique feature DO NOT POP OUT.
Conjunction. – More or less the same way to use this word is combination FT target is a feature target, has unique features.
CT target is does not have unique feature, harder to find. (conjunction =
If a target pops out, then it really doesn’t matter how many distractors there are.
Such as 1 green thing and 10 red things, it doesn’t matter how many things there
are, you will automatically find it.
BUT this is not