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Lecture

Psych 356.docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 356
Professor
Arlene Young

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Psych 356: Developmental Psychopathology with Dr. Arlene
Young 2013-01-09
January 9, 2013
First class J
Judith
Developmental disorders, mental health, treatment approaches, problems embedded in typical
development. Testing on the new text. Online support… website that provides study materials
(practice quizzes, articles… may be helpful, films etc).
Use webct. Posted lecture notes. Announcements, snow, check regularly.
First 2 weeks foundational. Constructs that will be referred to throughout the course. Case
material, not verbatim. Disguised to protect them. See real situations. How do we apply these
things?
Testing: 2 midterms (25%, 30% and a final 45%). Non-cumulative, although final a little broader.
Topical issues. What is your first question? News stories (e-mail if you want to talk about them).
Pretend you are a child psychologist and you have to figure out what to do.
1: sweet child sudden personality change to being very difficult, saucy, physically aggressive,
tempter outburst. Mom very concerned. Should he be treated? Not unusual.
2: Girl has trouble sleeping because shes sure her fish are watching her when she sleeps. The
fish are always looking her. They watch her in the dark. It upsets her. Every time she looks back,
the fish are watching her. Strange ideas about things. Said she could start a thunder storm by
raising her arms. Mother concerned because her brother has schizophrenia.
3: girl who is only comfortable when with her parents, especially mom. Clings to mom, doesnt
want to be with other kids, decided that she wants to live with her parents forever. Going to stay
in a mobile home in the backyard. No university.
Questions:
How old is the child? Terrible 2s for case 1. Duration, changes in the family, functioning in other
domains… all these issues are fairly common for preschoolers. Not really significant even in
preschool. Kids have bizarre ideas of how the world works. Not uncommon or worrisome for
young children, but if they are older then we might become concerned. All kids have problems at
some point in their development. Separation anxiety, stranger anxiety… good cognitive
development. Know familiar and unfamiliar. Developmental leaps when kids are fearful… toilet
training, going to be swallowed by the toilet. More vulnerable, new things. Teens who won’t
leave without their parents, thats atypical. Intervention needed.
Table 1.1 developmental tasks. Competence.

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Attachment to caregivers. Infancy to preschool. If problems here, can affect development.
Cornerstone of development. Can become magnified. Language disorder, higher risk for
academic difficulties and social implications (conduct problems in middle childhood, more
anxiety in adulthood). Individual differences… no risk factor is one to one mapping with
outcome. Lots of variability. Can’t predict how someone will look at 20. School is a language
rich place. Early problem may affect later academics. Relationships with other people. Self-
identity.
Theoretical Foundations
Etiology of childhood disorders: biological, psychological and environmental processes in
interaction over time. Interaction with child.
Abnormal development is multiply determined. No single story.
An integrated and multidisciplinary approach.
Relatively new. Research well established earlier. In 70s and 80s Dante Jecceti said need to
integrate different areas to understand what contributes to developmental psychopathology. Top
tier journal. Enriches this view. Transactional and relational. Neuro development, temperament
etc, help to understand what is typical and atypical. Issue, trauma, parenting failure, can all lead
to abnormal psychological functioning. Not static. Notion of transactional model is true for adults
too. Development continues throughout life. Recognized that kids are changing a lot.
Central constructs
Causal processes:
Risks (abuse, poverty, exposure to substances, family problems… all risk mental health
problems… yet not all kids that experience this will have mental health issues. Fraternal twins
may be impacted differently) and protective factors
Risk factors happen. Trauma, abuse… ways to protect them and boost their resilience. Mitigate
the bad stuff.
Person-environment interplay
Dynamic, resources and strengths or weakness that contribute to outcome of children. Kids that
are argumentative and difficult provoke responses in caregivers that put them higher at risk.
Parents may have difficulty managing a difficult child. Cope easily with some kids and not as
much with others. Kids choose their peers and might choose the wrong sort of friends.
Role of development
Needs to be taken into account. Sometimes hit a point in development because things arent
going very well. Some problems present early in life. 20% of childhood disorders are sustained
over development. Lots of children do not go on to have adult disorders. Learn strategies to cope.
Kids can get back on track even if they have certain vulnerabilities. Genetic impact on the
extremes… language disorders. B, C+ or an A is not loaded so much genetically.

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Normality and psychopathology
Continues and discontinuities
Genetic influences- extreme versus
Genetic link to IQ but not super detailed.
Normal variations
Developmental psychopathology perspective
Microparadigm and macroparadigm. Kids react to things quite differently. Some chill, some
more reactive. Biological basis. Temperament. Cognitive characteristics. Behaviourly inhibited
temperament, shy, less adventurous. Underlying temperament that directs attention. Kids at the
other extreme love adventure and less attentive to danger cues.
Short film
Pediatric Neuroscience: Rage of Innocents.
Parents affect child’s brain development and how they deal with stress. Parent according to
culture even when it may not be best for children. Neurologically incomplete when born. Most of
brain growth after born. First years most vulnerable, unprecedented brain growth. Baby
physiology expects certain type of parenting. Affects mental health. Risk factors affect child
psychological development.
Babies cry when they are stressed. Ferber method never scientifically proven. How and why
babies cry. Sugar stops a full blown cry. Accessing a system that is opiod mediated. Stress
reduction system. Reduces pain and manages stress.
Infants carried more cried less. Helped them regulate their crying. Early emotional reactions.
Long term psychological effects of sleeping with parents tend to tune out fine, happy, sexually
ok. Breastfeed more (3xs), baby moves more and the baby is fed before it cries, more sleep for
both. Trying to resettle the baby is where sleep is more disrupted when apart. Pull kids close,
don’t push them away.
Mother’s behaviour affects what sort of people the kids will become. Family as a system. Fear of
change. A child with a lot of positive affect will give back a lot of positive affect. Their brain will
be affected by that. Otherwise kids have more to overcome. Parent emotional behaviour and kid’s
brain development. Brain doesnt develop normally when parents act with neglect or abuse.
Babies want a reaction from their moms. Stop trying to get her attention. Certain brain functions
will not grow. Parents are artists, sculpting their childrens brains.
Relationships and emotions change the brain. Parental care and child stress response link. More
difficult for kids to do things when their brains are affected by parental care. Access to that
ability and intelligence impaired.
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