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Personality L7 Neo Freudian (Sullivan, Horney).pdf

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PSYC 370
Robert Ley

L7 Neo Freudian (Sullivan, Horney) March-06-13 2:29 PM • Exam: Existentialism won't be covered in lecture, but it will be examinable ○ It's more abstract than the previous chapters, less clear/clinicalapplication ○ Students tend to do worst in this chapter. GOD DAMN IT ○ You're only responsiblefor what's on the textbook (b/c some ppl aren't in the textbook but were supposed to be talked about in the lecture) • OMG IT'S NEXT WEEK • RailwayClub • Check out Eric Froman (hisfriend) Sullivan& Horney • Both clinicians Harry Stack Sullivan:Background • Brilliantclinician,even though he had some psychological,substance, interpersonal problems • Practical & down to earth • Theories tend to be categorized as interpersonal theories b/c of emphasison interpersonal relationshipsthrough developmentto shape personality ○ Beginsin mother/child relationships • Active, problem solving,suggestiongiving approach (eventhough he was trained as a psychoanalyst) • Participant-observer: the role of the therapist; should be a participant in therapy session (shapes the interactions in therapy → therefore also influencedby the therapy) and not just a neutral, distant observer • If Freud put emphasison intrapersonalprocesses, then Sullivan'sshifts this emphasisto interpersonal • The unconscious had a minorrole Sullivan:personal life • 1980's in rural farm in NY state of a poor family(Irish Americanimmigrants) • Took mother's last name, Stack, as his middlename (which was common in the day, but also b/c she was from a higherstatus family) • Very lonely/solitaryas a child ○ Had few friends ○ Didn't writeletters nor autobiography, so lots of things known about him are speculation • Father was a strict/abusive, mother had serious psychological problems (perhaps major mental illness,she was hospitalized when he was 8-10y/o) ○ Grandmother came to look after the children. She wasn't … a kind, motherly person either • When ~8y/o, he made a close friend with 13y/o Clarence Berllinger ○ Friendshiplasted ~5 yrs, until Clarence movedaway after graduation ○ Speculation that this relationshipwas a sexual one ○ Sullivanwas homosexual (but society wasn't accepting and so he was closeted → caused him lots of difficulty) ○ Berllingeralso went on to become a psychologist (never married… probably gay…) • Went on to go to Cornell universityto study physics, then switched to medicine ○ Expelledfor fraud in acquiring papers in exam in illegalmanner (or something along those lines)(or homosexual behaviours) ○ Fell off the map for a while, littleis known about this period, he said littleabout it Possiblethat he fell into bout of psychological difficulty(giventhat hismother had it too) ○ Possiblethat he fell into bout of psychological difficulty(giventhat hismother had it too) • In mid-20's, went to medical collegein Chicago (it was… dodgy. Mail order degree?) • Began practicing medicine/psychiatry→ good break b/c his first place of employmentwas at esteemed hospital (Elizabeth Hospital)@ DC Washington ○ Developed reputation as a brilliantclinician ○ Made a therapeutic community within the hospital for young maleschizophrenic patients (patients, staff, etc.) ○ Had some unusual treatment approach  e.g.,going on camping trips with the entire therapeutic community (patients and staff and all) ○ CAN IT BE POSSIBLE to be brilliantand also have psychological problems at the same time? • WilliamAllansonWhite Foundation ○ Sheppard Enock Pratt, in Baltimore ○ WilliamWhite was known for strong interdisciplinaryinterests  Integrate social science into psychology (anthropology, sociology) • Mid 30's, WWII psychiatrist • After WWII,moved to NY to start psychiatric practice there ○ Was identifiedas psychoanalyst ○ Considerablesuccess b/c of reputation ○ Gave up practice b/c of significantappointments (started psychiatric journal, involved united nation) • Troubled personal life ○ Very unhappy & depressive ○ Severelyalcoholic, described as unlikeable, rude, aggressive  Wrote that those with alcohol abuse tend to have sexual problems  He was homosexual, but havewanted to be heterosexual ○ Enjoyed humiliatinghis students ○ Borrowed money from friends b/c he lacked moneydespite successful practice, spend money extravagantly→ eventuallyfiledfor bankruptcy ○ Passed awayin Paris (unknown if it was medical or suicide) ○ Only published one book (he was a terriblewriter, hard to understand) • Mid 40's, adopted an adolescent 15 y/o male, who livedwith Sullivanfor the rest of his life ○ Acted as caretaker, helper, aide, nurse ○ Speculation that this mayhave been a sexual relationship (LIKE BATMAN AND ROBIN) Sullivan:Theory • Emphathic linkage ○ Emphasis on anxiety, and how it's communicated between mother and child ○ Mother is responsibleto relievingchild's anxiety(bodily tension, basic needs) ○ Mother's success forms template for child's expectation for anxiety in life ○ A good parent would be sensitiveto child's needs/wants & sooth negative states • CognitiveTheory in how child experience/process incoming information ○ Three Modes of experience: prototaxic, parataxic, syntax ○ Some overlap with Piaget'sstages of cognitive development ○ Prototaxic  Initial,crude experienceof newborn (booming/buzzing confusion; flooded with sensory stimuli that they can't comprehend)  Childrelieson mother/caretaker to manage & regulate overwhelmingsensory experience  (Piaget)Sensorimotor stage ○ Parataxic  The developingtoddler can sort of understand certain kinds of experiences are  The developingtoddler can sort of understand certain kinds of experiences are associated/connected with experiences in the world □ e.g.,if you're hungry and cry, mother will come and giveyou food  Not always logical/causalconnections, not proven/rational □ It's almost magical,such as superstitious behaviours □ Represents a more primitivekind of cognition □ e.g.,don't touch my tilesin Mah Jong or they'll be bad tiles □ e.g.,lucky coin  (Piaget)concrete operational thinking: don't have conservation of things. One big cracker splitin half = 2 big crackers □ Perspective, YO ○ Syntaxic  (Piaget)Formal operation: adult thought. Conservation is possible. □ Can think of morethan one thing at once. □ e.g.,when buying clothes, you'd consider how you look init, but also what friends mightthink about it, what settings you can wear it in, etc. • Developmentof self ○ Infants' nursing experienceswith mother → prototype for interpersonal relationship  The rudimentsof attachment theory! (secure vs. insecure)  Caretaker-childinteraction crucial for establishing attachment □ Which influences their coping abilities,socialness, etc. ○ Relationshipcreates personificationsof mother  Depends on satisfaction of child/ success of mother  Influences the child's own personification  There are three kinds that mayresult  (1) Good mother □ Successfully reduces tension □ Like secure attachment □ → "Good me"  (2) Bad mother □ Unreliable/inconsistentresponse to infant's need □ Failedto meet child's needs, rejecting of the child □ e.g.,abuse □ → "Bad me"  Internalizesthat relationship  Feel that something is "wrong with me ", which would explain caretaker's behaviour  As if they're not worthwhile/lovable  (3) Bad-anxiousmother □ If infant senses, through empathic linkage,that mother is tense/unhappy/dissatisfied □ → also "Bad Me"  → "not me" □ Extreme kinds of cases, infant isrejected, abused, mistreated by caretaker/world □ e.g.,child abuse □ In parataxic mode, extremelyabusiveexperience occurs → child is overwhelmed& cannot understand □
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