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Personality Lecture Notes pt3

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PSYC 370
Robert Ley

L8 Gordon Allport March-20-13 2:28 PM Gordon Allport • Study in Americadidn't begin until 1930's, when Gordon Allport's work/contributions started • Organized a personality course • Wrote the first personality textbook • Developed hisown theories that include the concepts of personality traits ○ "how would you describe yourself" → usuallyuse trait descriptions (made reference to personalitytraits) • 1930's -- 20-50's were the boom of psychoanalytic theories ○ Before behaviourists' era ○ Encountered Freud earlyin his life • Different from Freud: ○ (1) Didn't believeconcept of unconscious & roleof unconscious in behaviour/personalityin mature adults (believedFreud exaggerated& overemphasized) ○ (2) Positiveview of human (influenced humanist/Maslow)  Oriented towards how each individualis unique and developing/actualizingtheir own experienceof the world ○ (3) Normal, mature, rational human behaviourlargelyinfluenced by rational conscious thoughts  Emphasized non-pathological personality/behaviour  Perhaps unconscious had more to do with pathological behaviours  [Isn't this a littleinconsistent?]  Didn't think it made sense to study pathological patients to understand healthy adults ○ Adult personalitywasn't influenced by the past, moreinfluenced by the present ○ (4) Wasn't a clinical psychologist, didn't counsel → Clinicalobserver, but not social science researcher Allport's Personal Life • Born in1897 in mid-westernUSA • Father was a business made, but trained as a physician who became a familydoctor in a small Indiana town ○ Had his office in his home ○ Patients would be kept in the home overnight/ for few days, depending on illness→ his familyhome was something likea clinic/hospital • Youngest of 4 boys, with largeagegaps between them → somewhat isolatedfrom his older brothers b/c of agegap ○ Adler: still competitivewith older brothers, who acted as motivation for his accomplishments ○ Floyd Allport was a social researcher (prejudice) • Resented how patients were staying in the house ○ Familywas veryhumanistic, assisting poorer people too (took them in, let them board, fed them, etc.) → he dislikedthis b/c it made him felt excluded from the family(household was so busy that he's ignored) • Good student. Appliedfor Harvardb/c his older brothers went. Accepted. ○ Highlycultured & intellectual environmentfor him ○ Struggledinitially,but excelled • As adolescent/young adults, very oriented towards social service (influenced by his family) ○ Liked to help people Part of developing hispersonality and value system (Marica/Erikson: experimenting) ○ Part of developing hispersonality and value system (Marica/Erikson: experimenting) ○ Peopleresponded well to him when he did volunteer→ overcome his feelingsof inferiority & met his need to be liked • Graduated. Didn't have plans to go into psychology. Liked the idea of teaching. Strong pop cultural interest. Travellingwas unusual at the time. ○ Took a teaching job in Turkey (considered quite exotic) ○ Got interested in psychology whilehe was there → returned to Harvardto do Psychology Masters • ~21y/o, after doing some teaching, decided to visit brother inVienna, but also wanted to meet Freud (wrote to him, who agreedto meet with him) ○ Freud invited him into his home/clinic,and just sat there. Allport was super nervous. ○ To break the ice, Allporttold how on his way here, a small boy on the street car had an obvious fear of dirt, and the mother seemedvery concerned about that. ○ Freud said "was that littleboy you?" Allport was nervous as heck, and muttered some reply  Felt psychoanalysisgoes "too deep", too deep into the unconscious for motives/behaviours  Influenced Allport'sfocus on overt/surface behaviours/motives • FinishedMasters & PhD → Dissertation: experimental study on the traits of personality ○ First formal study of personalitytraits in history • Organized the first course in personality theories & later wrote the first personality textbook ○ Collaboratedwith his brother on racial prejudice ○ Became prominent psychologist ○ Shifted psychology away from pathological; towards normal/healthypersonality adjustments • Very influenced by his older brother Floyd (PhD in social psychology) ○ Studied the same university& subject, became the same degree. Allport: Definitionof Personality • Went through a dictionary (likeWebster's) and looked at everyentry, to count everyword that was personalitydescription/trait ○ ~17,000 ○ Did this ALL BY HIMSELF. • Very content on coming up with a consensual definitionof personality→ "Personality is …" ○ The dynamicorganization  Changing tensions with other components  Not static, in a state of change ○ Within the individual  Locates it in the individual  Doesn’t say that it's subject to external forces ○ Of those psychophysicalsystems  Emphasize the influence of biologyor nature (nurture), mindvs. body issue  Saying that both are important  Relates to importance of P's biological status/stature, but alsotemperament can be influential in P's adjustment  e.g.,P has ADHD(born with it, it's a CNS dysfunction) (temperamental),ADHD will also influence their development ○ That determine one's characters, behavioursand thoughts  Deterministic  Personalitydoes something, has an organizing function  What this person does is characteristic of him/her  Later changed to "determine individuals'uniqueadjustmentto the world" □ Emphasising how each P is unique □ Personalitytraits are commonlyused to group/classifypeople → have to rememberthat uniqueness is still a factor rememberthat uniqueness is still a factor □ e.g.,this group of people are aggressive,but they may be aggressivein different ways/situations □ "ANGRY TEENAGER" Allport: Psychologymust deal with the individualcase • Idiographicapproach ○ Believedthat you can makegeneralizedrules about personality& you can tell it ○ Vs. Nomothetic approach  Where you study groups, measured with respect to variables,measureout central tendencies/averages→ derive general rulesthat you generalizeto population • Hard to tell if P is a true positive(represent data from findings)or falsepositive (they don't actually represent data) ○ e.g.,you study lawyersand find that all depressed lawyersdo A, with a co-relation of 0.6 → that's HIGH. But there's still 36% variability(among population). What if Lawyer B is one of those who vary? • Allportwas interested in using personal documents to generatepersonality descriptions ○ [Jenny] Allportcame upon the letters that she wrote to her mother. Developa personality description based on these ○ Still used these days  e.g.,bringing threatening letters in for profiling  e.g.,have grad students analyze a 50 year old femalepatient's notes that describe a nightmare, givingthem no extra information. Allport: Trait Theory • (1) Personalitytraits are real, not just theoretical constructs; they existinside of people ○ Actual aspects/attributes of people ○ e.g.,you're introverted. That's real. Not just saying you have particular behaviours ○ e.g.,P says: sitting with your armscrossed makes meangry b/c it seemslikeyou were blocking meout; you also seemedless attentive. • (2) Personalitytraits determinebehaviours ○ Traits do not come into existence only in response to stimuli ○ It's not triggered/causedby something external ○ Traits are internal & causes us to seek out certain stimuli  e.g.,what do you and your friendsdo when you have a few hours free time? ○ Remember,behaviourism (Watson) isgrowing around the timeAllport is creating this theory → this isto distinguishhis viewsfrom them  Behaviouristbelievesthere's nothing intrinsic, and these thingsare prompted • (3) Traits can be demonstrated empirically ○ b/c traits are real, they can be verifiedthrough observation/studies ○ e.g.,a pattern of irresponsiblebehaviours over time→ irresponsible • (4) Traits are not independent of one another ○ They may overlap, highlycorrelated ○ e.g.,shyness ↔ selfconscious, quietness • Categoriesof Traits ○ Individualtraits: specific, unique to P  Helpsyou define/identifyP in groups to find their truer/more representative nature ○ Commontraits: shared by large number of P  e.g.,P's in a culture share traits  e.g.,racial prejudice  More abstract/general, identifiesmore P in a group • Other Personal Characteristics/Concepts (not traits but similar) • Other Personal Characteristics/Concepts (not traits but similar) ○ Habits  Traits may determinehabits, which determine behaviours  Pertains to narrow range of behaviours  e.g.,habit of tooth brushing (several times a day? Before meal?After meal?) □ It's not a trait, but may be related to trait of cleanliness,trait of vanity, etc.  e.g.,habit of cleanliness→ tooth brushing, hand washing, tidy clothes, fixing hair, etc.  Habits can be come compulsion (hand washing b/c of fear of hospital contamination) □ Maladaptive  Habits maybe learned □ e.g.,socialized into brushing your teeth until it becomes a regularbehaviour ○ Attitude  Habits tend to be specific/narrow, whereasattitude tend to be more general □ Related to traits that are subsumed to it  e.g.,patriotism attitude → sing anthem loudlyat games,go to ceremony, parade □ ↔ trait of pride, loyalty  Special kind of reference □ Particular attitude towards different things □ e.g.,teachers, dog lovers  Traits are lessspecific → behaviour would be similaracross settings □ e.g.,shy around women, it wouldn't matter what kind of women  A tendency to have valence (be negativeor positive) □ Traits are neutral Different Kinds of Traits ○ Different severity& application  Some traits are verypowerful & dominating in personality, whileothers are lessso ○ (1) Cardinal Traits  Very pervasive,extremelyinfluential trait that can dominant most aspect of individual'spersonality/behaviour  A "ruling passion" → you can see this trait in almost everything that P does, most aspects of their behaviours  Usuallynamedafter mythological characters who were dominated by singlesalient characteristics □ e.g.,narcissism (self love, need approval) ← Narcissus(Greek myth, was so enchanted by his own appearance he would look at reflections of himself wheneverhe could → looked at his reflection inpond and was so entranced by it that he fell into the pond and drowned) □ e.g.,Marquis de Sade (took pleasurein pains of others) → sadism □ e.g.,Masoc (known for his sufferingsand the seeminglypleasure he derived from it) → masochism  Not everyone has one → tends to be negative, and more rare ○ (2) Central Traits  Less pervasive, morecharacteristic of you  Key characteristic that depicts this person  Usuallypeoplehave ~5-10 such traits (the ones listed if I asked you/your friendsto describe yourself) □ e.g.,friendly, helpful, cooperative, reliable,etc.  Much more numerous, shared by people ○ (3) Secondary Traits  Less obvious/important, lessconspicuous, more subtle  Not many people may see/knowabout P (maybe only best friends, partner)  e.g.,sometimesneed to be alone/solitude Allport: Theory of Motivation • Different kinds of motivation in personality; verychallenging aspect to study under personality theories (how do you account for what motivates personality?) • Motivation should have4 requirements ○ 1) Contemporaneousnessof motivation  Needs to be present in the P, accounting for immediatebehaviours  Remember,this iswhere Allport deviatesfrom Freud (past can't be the only explanation of present) ○ 2) Plurality  There usually isn't a singlemotivation; people are influenced/motivatedby multiple kids of influence  e.g.,self mutilation: cut forearm with razor. Tends to be compulsive& repeated. □ Behaviour tends to satisfy different motives: displaceother kinds of pain (emotional/psychological),empowerment, self loathing, attention seeking, stimulation, pleasure, to feel alive ○ 3) [Conscious] Cognitiveprocess  Rational conscious motivations, rather than unconscious ones  To distinguishhis theories from Freud ○ 4) Concrete uniqueness  Touches on how it's rational  Haveto recognize the uniquenessof P's motive/motivationalpatterns • Develops a theory of motivation that's somewhat complex ○ Levels of proprium ○ Propriate striving ○ Look these up. Note! • Functionalautonomy:adult beahviours/motivesare functionallyautonomous from the past ○ Vs. Freud: adult behavioursaren't separated/autonomous from P's past. They're integrated, the past determines adult behaviours ○ Even when the behaviours are similarto the ones in the past ○ ex. a boy enjoys fishing with his father in his childhood. In a storm, the boat capsizes and the boy and father are tossed into the sea. The father puts the only lifejacket on the boy and he is the only one that survives.Now grown up, the boy enjoys fishing/boating.  Psychoanalytic: adult boy's interest in fishing is determinedby the fishing experience as a child, trying to keep father alivethrough this hobby.  Allport: adult boy's motive to fish has nothing to do with it [kind of simplisticthough]. P may say he enjoys fishing b/c he likesbeing in the fresh air and how it's challenging yet relaxing. □ Allportwill find this response sufficient. It fits the 4 requirementsof motivation (above) L8-9 Carl Rogers March-20-13 4:51 PM • Greatest impact on psychotherapy practice in the 20-21st century: SigmundFreud and Carl Rogers • Influential b/c it was humanisticand representativeof different viewpointin development of personalityand also b/c it was veryclosely related to his psychotherapeutic approach ○ Client/Personcentered therapy Personal History • Grew up in mid-west USA ○ Kind of likethe prairiein terms of what stereotypes wehave on them (values) • Familywas veryreligious(protestant, Christianitybut very devote) and veryconservative (values hard work, loyalty, responsibility,honesty, respect) • Parents are firm/strict but loving • Lived in rural area and siblingsstudied agriculture • Including Carl Rogers, in university→ wasn't simplylearning just for farming,was going for more educational view ○ Became interested in theology and religion(interest in becoming minister/pastor) ○ Found classes veryliberating (more so than home) ○ Received(rare) opportunity to go on religious/studyexchange to China(1920's) ○ Was very movedby this experience→ became broader inthinking • Shifted his interest to psychology, studying clinical psychology at Columbia ○ Began working at a counselling centre (university,Rochester) ○ Think/study activelyabout the relationshipbetween therapist and patient • Became a professor at Ohio State University ○ Graduallymoved through more universities ○ Further developedstudy of psychotherapy process (esp. orientation of therapist towards patients) • Innovativein his studies ○ First to record psychotherapy sessionsto help teach students ○ Used observations (supervisorobserve students through one way mirror) ○ Contributions to how students learn about becoming psychotherapists • Wrote "On Becoming a Person" • Rejected psychoanalytic & medical biologicalapproach to mental heath (which was reallybig at the time) ○ Very attuned to experienceof clients (rejected the medical term: patient) ○ Good at reflecting the clients' feelingsback to them ← central technique • Was influenced by Otto Rank(who had worked with Freud, but was sort of independent) ○ Believedthat each person had within them an inherent/intrinsicability/capacity to change, orienting towards a positive change / self improvement(actualize their potentials)  Therapist needs to guide clients towards self-understanding (likein psychoanalysis) but also liberatethis intrinsic tendency towards positive growth (self actualization) 27/03/2013 2:33 PM • Spent a lot of time on clinical work (counsellingcentre, child guidancecenter) → refined hisway of thinking of how to approach clients ○ At the time, the norm was psychoanalytic approaches • Treated a fire setter: treated him from a psychoanalytic setting → didn't reallyapply, wasn't effective • Behaviourism was strong force in Americanpsychology since 1920's (Watson, classical conditioning) conditioning) ○ But Rogerfound this to be too restricting ○ Clientsthemselvesknow best what is the best solution to their problems ○ Therapist is there to create a relationship/environmentfor client's intrinsic understanding surface Rogers: Key Assertions • Assertion #1: each person has an inherent/intrinsicabilityto change to actualize their potentials ○ Tendency towards this growth is strong, and can overcome adversary. ○ In self-enhancing ways ○ Present since birth and throughout P's life ○ However, lifecircumstances (environment, esp. parents) can interfere with this tendency.  Once disrupted, P becomes progressivelyalienatedfrom self  Self alienationleads to psychological symptoms (anxiety, obsessiveness,etc.) • Assertion #2: each person has an inherent bodilywisdom, to let them differentiate experiences that actualize potentials (vs. those that interfere) ○ Organismicway of differentiating experiences ○ We know what "feelsgood and what doesn't" → this is instinctual ○ Infants act positivelyto certain experience that helps with self-growth ○ Abilityto trust one's own experience  "I can't relyon myself" ○ e.g.,parents interfere ifthey invalidatehow children feel  "oh, stop crying. That doesn't hurt"  Conveyingthat the child doesn't understand their own experience ○ e.g.,teaching children about sexual abuse → "good and bad teaching" • Assertion #3: crucially important as living organismsto be fullyopen to our experiences ○ P should continuously be open to new experiences, fullyutilize sensory experiences ○ Can only fullyfunction if we keep such experiences open • Assertion #4: significantothers (parents) are crucial for helping us experiencesfully ○ Other people important in helping us differentiateour experiences& be open to our experiences, particularly helpus label & understand experiences ○ e.g.,young child liketo engagein fantasy play(pre-school) → may become confused about what isreal and what is fantasy  Childask if dragons are real → no, but there are lizards… ○ Risk: shutting down their experiences  e.g.,parents invalidateschild's pain, "stop crying. It didn't hurt"  Mislabel or distort their experience  Confuse children to be uncertain or not confident about the nature of their experiences  e.g.,tell them they're not capable, not smart; that something is dangerous/scary  e.g.,children who were sexuallyabused, experiencessexual pleasure;are told "it's okay for somepeople to do this; it's okay; it's a secret game," etc. □ Can cause lots of confusion & disturb their understanding of experience! Rogers: Sense of Self • From their experiences, a sense of selfstarts to develops ○ Young children(3-4 y/o) are quite competent in the world • e.g.,"look how high I can jump" ○ Extension of their sense of self, somerudimentary form of self/ self concept • Childrencrying b/c they fell and mother says "stop crying it doesn’t hurt" → mom gets mad when I cry ○ Develops a rudimentarysense of self ○ How children have to be a certain way to receive attention or affection Learns to be quiet, not cause commotion, etc. ○ Learns to be quiet, not cause commotion, etc. ○ Lays foundation for anxiety, security, over orientation towards pleasing others ○ This self concept develops at a fairlyearlyage • One need that all children have is for positive regard, by significantothers ○ Similarto attachment  More exploratory if givenadequate care & forms secure attachment → better coping skillsand social skills • Toddler interested in other things and mother walksoff (I'm going, bye) → toddler cries b/c mother is gone → mom comes back and yells(why didn't you just come with me in the first place?) ○ What ifchild is overlyindulged? (Excessivelysoothed, pampered) → Will distort experience also! ○ Life is full of trial and errors, after all. Behaviouris modifiedby feedback we get ○ Childwon't be autonomous and won't feel secure in the world; needs are so great inthe world they'll never be satisfied → expect parents/ others to care for them, won't feel capable to do things on their own • Negativeattitude in psychiatry → invested in diagnosis ○ Rogers felt this was an over simplificationthat classifiespeople and depersonalizedthem (lessindividuality) ○ e.g.,"these 20 people are all borderline" → reduces the complexityof peopleinto a simple label • If children doesn't receivepositiveregard (from parents, caretaker, world around them), then their self concepts becomes distorted and inaccurate ○ Will become to distrust their own capabilities→ "sacrifices their own experiences in service of gainingothers' love/interest" ○ Present in reallyanxious children (need to be close to parent, verydependent) ○ Their self experience= I can't survive without my parents around (will be fearful, I won't be safe without them) ○ Will reduce activity to stay near parents (won't go to school, sleepovers,etc.) • A child learnsconditions of worth ○ That is, the ways in which P needs to be/act/achievein order to gainapproval, to receive positiveregard ○ e.g.,P shouldn't be noisy, P should be good at sports/school, P should be pretty/girly,etc. ○ These distortion can cause self-alienation ○ When internal selfbecomes discrepant from how we are outwardly → symptoms! • If you're sad/fearful inwardly, but aggressiveoutwardly, the contrast between inside/outside probably causes you distress ○ Lots of anxietyto organize behaviour ○ Less symptomatic if inner/outer selveswere more congruent • As a child becomes more responsiveto conditions of worth that parents set up, that child is likely to be more unhappy • Think about how peoplemay be oriented towards meeting certain expectations → who sets these expectations? Yourself, institution, etc. ○ e.g.,getting an A+ in a course vs. getting a B+ → what does that say about you? … just that you got a higher grade… ○ → can be verydistorting • e.g.,Hyperactive client with excessivelevelof activity ○ What happens if you slow down? → surprised b/c he's used to getting approval for doing so much (raisein salary, awards, etc.) • Maladjustment comes from denial of experiences that are discrepant with selfconcept Rogers: AppliedNotions about PersonalityDevelopment Rogers: AppliedNotions about PersonalityDevelopment • Was a social scientist who wrote so manybooks, scientific article, papers, etc. • Wanted to apply social science to studying psychotherapy outcome (among other topics of interests) ○ Therapeutic gains, positiveoutcomes ○ Interested in what isthe process of therapy? • Contentof therapy: what we say and do in therapy ○ e.g.,CBT • Process of therapy: what is happening in emotional/psychologicalsense between client and therapist ○ e.g.,leaning forward in your chair as client is talking→ nonverbal gesture → makesclient feel therapist is more understanding/empathetic ○ Rogers felt the nonverbal things creates differentpsychological experiencefor client • e.g.,think about how people convey hope ○ You have knee pain. Your physician recommends you to a knee expert who's a friend of hers, so she can hook you up for an appointment this week → you feel more hopeful, expectancy of a positiveoutcome ○ Givesclient hope eventhough they're uncertain about life/outcomeof therapy → "omg this is the worst case I've ever seen" vs. "I'm helped people with similarproblems,even though each case is unique" • Q-Sort ○ Way for evaluating a person/selfconcept, as well as changes/response to psychotherapy ○ e.g.,"I am a friendlyperson", competent, worried, etc. ○ P is asked to sort it into categories  A pileof cards that "describes present self", one that "describes ideal self"  Repeat over a period of time to seehow their definitionof self havechanged, whether they're moving towards ideal self • Process scale ○ Way of measuring aspects of psychotherapy process (client-therapist relationship)  e.g.,See how client perceivestherapist Rogers: Treatment • Almostall counseling programs are based largelyon Rogerian person centered approach • Therapist attitudes:are necessary AND sufficient ○ (1) Accurate Empathy  To understand in deep way, to deeplyresonate with the experiences of others  May exist on a continuum  If therapist hasn't been sexuallyabused before, can they empathize with a sexually abused P? □ Lots of debate in the psychotherapy circles (whether they should be similar experience) □ What ifP is an alcoholic? □ OOPS I HEARD CULT. AND I WASLIKE "DID THE THERAPIST JOIN A CULT BEFORE"  How therapist receive the behaviours □ Not just understanding the words ,but also being sensitiveto P's experience □ Being non judgemental, being aware of subtle shifts in P's experience  Vs. sympathy: not feeling for someone → empathy: feeling with someone ○ (2) [Unconditional]Positive Regard  Having a caring attitude towards som
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