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Psychology (1,559)
PSYC 376 (37)
Lecture 11

lec11

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 376
Professor
Deborah Connolly

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Chapter 13 ~ How victims Become Offenders - Assumption (theory by Curtis) cycle of violence abused children become abusers and victims of violence become violent victimizers - 1980s cycle of violence did not pass scientific muster, but methodological limitations (used cross-sectional designs, ambiguous definitions, lack control) - Midwest study (Maxfield and Widom) matched on age, sex, race = followed up 25 years ~ findings: child abuse and neglect increased risk of arrest as juvenile by 55%; increased risk of committing violent crime as juvenile by 96% ~ Found abused and neglected children were associated with earlier onset of juvenile crime; more likely to be recidivist and chronic offenders Abused and neglected girls = almost 2x more likely vs. girls no histories to be arrested as juveniles,+ 2x likely arrested s adults,2.4x arrest for violent crime ~ Subset of abused and neglected girls who develop antisocial and delinquent lifestyles that persist into adulthood and become chronic persistent offenders with serious criminal careers - Stouthamer-Loeber, Loeber,Homish, Wie described findings from Pittsburgh youth Study = results: youths with substantiated records of maltreatment more likely vs. control to have juvenile arrest records and self-report delinquent and violent behaviour - The Child Development Project 2-site (Indiana, Tennessee)longitudinal study confirms relationship between childhood victimization and juvenile delinquency ~ experience physical abuse in first 5 years of their lives more likely to be arrested as juveniles for violent and nonviolent offenses, but not more likely to report delinquent acts - Delinquency rates higher for boys vs. girls - Child abuse and neglect appear to increase risk for juvenile crime in both girls and boys - Many abused and neglected children do not become delinquent or violent youths - Theories of how victimized children may grow up to become juvenile and adult offenders Social Learning Theory children acquire behaviours through modeling and reinforcement contingencies in context of social interactions ~ learn behaviour by imitating others, observed behaviour is salient when model is someone of high status aggression in family = powerful model= gives message such behaviour is appropriate ~ Family reinforcepunish child aggressive behaviour through their reactions, = can either perpetuate or extinguish behaviour ~ Neglectful parents pay attention to child more when she is aggressive even if attention is hostile would reward their behaviour www.notesolution.com
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