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PSYC 376 (37)
Lecture 12


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PSYC 376
Deborah Connolly

Chapter 14 ~ Police Interrogation and False Confessions - Superpredator especially violent breed of juvenile offenders who acted impulsively and without remorse - Central park jogger case produce 5 false confession case stands for juveniles susceptibility to interrogative influence - Often, when police identified a suspect, they bring them to police station for questions - Prior to interrogation, police will conduct nonaccusatorial interview during which ask series of behaviour-provoking questions, observe suspects verbal and nonverbal behaviour, attempt to determine whether suspect is telling truth or lying - Reid technique approach begins with Behavioural analysis interview (BAI) - series of presumably diagnostic questions ex. What do you think should happen to person who committed this crime?; behavioural symptoms analysis interviewer then seeks to distinguish between innocent and guilty suspects by observing nonverbal behaviours such as slouching, diminished eye contact, frozen posture, other behaviours thats developmentally typical of youth ~ Important: make judgments of truth and deception = if suspect judged to be deceptive, interrogation will ensue, if not then would be released ~ Research dont support use of BAI as diagnostic tool (people cant reliably tell who being deceptive, on average, perform at chance levels) same for police, although they are often found to be highly confident in their abilities and biased towards judgements o f deception ~ suspect judged to be deceptive, waiver of Miranda rights to silence and to an attorney must be obtained before police can legally proceed with interrogation (this stage, suspect must waive these constitutionally rights voluntarily, knowing, an intelligently) ~ interrogators isolate suspects, confront them with accusations of guilty, present false evidence of guilt, interrupt denials, utilize motivational themes that minimize crime by offering moral justification and face-saving excuses + may use maximization tactics , ultimately interrogator poses alternative question that offers suspect choice between two guilty options to elicit an initial admission - Results: some behaviours that are supposed to be characteristics of liars (shifting posture, evasive answers) were correlated with truth telling - Comprehensibility of Miranda warnings ranges from grade 2 level to postgraduate levels - Some components of waiver, ex. Right to remain silence, and anything said could be held against you, ended to be presented in comprehensible form in most jurisdictions - If suspects waive their Miranda rights, interrogation can proceeding absence of lawyer - Current-day interrogations rely on psychological tactics to obtain self-incriminating statements - Inbau claim techniques used for adult suspects are just as applicable for juvenile suspects (Reid) ~ But say minimization better for juveniles because citing strategies good for impulsive tendencies and inability to resist temptations and excitability - Trickery and deception can induce false confessions - Police use guilt-presumptive social influence techniques that increase risk of false confessions - US going through age of innocence advances of DNA technology + wrongful convictions innocent project
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