Moral circle: denotes the set of entities considered worthy of moral regard and treatment.
The more natural entities people include in their moral circle, the more motivate they would be to
engage in pro envt behavior.
Individuals with highly selfimportant moral identity exhibit a expansive moral circle. These individuals
tend to express more favorable attitudes and act more prosocially towards members of various out
The human relation with nature and technological nature
Technological nature: technologies that simulate the natural world
Biophilia: genetically based human need to affiliate with life and lifelike processes. Ex. Even the most minimal
connection with nature can increase healing process of patients.
Interacting with technological nature provides some but not all of the benefits of interaction with actual nature
Shifting baseline: a gradual accommodation of the creeping disappearance of resource specices.
>any widespread deficiency comes to be accepted as a “normal state”
Environmental generational amnesia: with each generation, the amount of environmental degradation increases,
but each generation takes that degradation as normal.
March 5 : can nature make us more caring? Effects of immersion in nature on intrinsic aspirations and
generosity. ( reading 2)
Experiments examines the effects of nature on valuing intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations .
intrinsic aspirations: prosocial and other focused value orientations
extrinsic aspirations: selffocused value orientations.
Results of experiments:
people immersed in natural environments had higher valuing of intrinsic aspirations and lower valuing
of extrinsic aspirations.
People who are immersed in nonnatural environments had higher valuing of extrinsic aspirations and no
change of intrinsic aspirations.
What are the causes of these results?
nature immersion increases feelings of nature relatedness and autonomy.
Nonnature immersion thwarts these feelings.
The positive effects that comes with associating with nature( such as higher physical health, less stress..etc)
depends on the degree to which people are immersed with nature.
Intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations life aspirations(valueladen goals): these influence important life decisions, define specific perceived
values, and affect the direction and quality of life experiences. Life aspirations shape perceptions,
judgments and behaviors.
There are two types of life aspirations:
1) Intrinsic aspirations: concern the pursuit of goals that satisfy basic psychological needs ( eg. Personal
growth, intimacy and community)
2) Extrinsic aspirations: focus on externally valued goods that are not inherently rewarding but helps you
gain social approval. ( money, image and fame)
These two aspirations relate to different well being outcomes.
The mediating roles of personal autonomy and relatedness to nature
Nature exposure can affect life aspirations because of supporting autonomy( experience that one can express
oneself or behave in ways that are selfendorsed and compatible with superordinate interest and values; having a
sense of inner congruency)
studies show that higher experiences of autonomy predicts valuing of intrinsic aspirations and devaluing
Relatedness to nature: the extent to which individuals include nature in their representation of themselves.
behaviors indicative of intrinsic aspiration, such as relational emotions, relational min0sets and less
selfish decisions making is linked to connected to nature.
There are two types of intrinsic aspirations:
relationship aspirations: goal orientation toward developing close and satisfying relationships with other
community aspirations: involves seeking to positively affect the larger social community by engaging in
Two types of extrinsic aspirations:
Wealth aspirations: seeking to attain wealth and material goods.
Fame aspirations: acquiring attention and approval from others.
All studies showed that participants exposed to nature valued intrinsic goals more and extrinsic goals
less than they had before exposure.
Immersion to nature environment did not affect reports of intrinsic aspirations for those exposed to non
nature environments, and it actually predicted high valuing of extrinsic aspirations.
Overall, results suggest that nature, which is inherently unrelated to human intervention, brings
individuals closer to others, whereas human made environments orient goals toward more selfish or self
Higher immersion in nature predicts higher nature relatedness and autonomy
Higher immersion in nonnature predicted lower nature relatedness and autonomy. Nature relatedness and autonomy independently predicted higher intrinsic aspirations and lower
March 5 : when trees die, people die
beetles are killing trees, and this connects to lower levels of oxygen for people
soft fascination: nature has a restorative ability to capture people’s attention and increase positive well
studies show that nature has direct impact on positive mental health.
March 5 : the human relationship with nature and technological nature
March 12: the relations between natural and civic place attachment and proenvt behavior
Studies have shown that place attachment is associated with both more and less proenvironmental
Place attachment: bonding that occurs between individuals and their meaningful environments. It is a
multidimensional concept with person, psychological process, and place dimensions
person dimension: describes who is attached
psychological process dimension: describes the affective, cognitive and behavioral manifestations of the
( people are have high place attachment refer it to positive emotions such as pride and love; incorporate
the place into selfschemas and express attachment through proximitymaintaining behaviors.
Place dimension: includes the varying aspects of place, such as spatial level, degree of specificity and
social/physical features of the place.
Place attachment is multidimensional and these dimensions may vary is salience across individuals and places.
Study of neighborhood attachment: residents can be strongly attached to a neighborhood even though it has
poor conditions because it allows for social interaction with others.
place attachment can also be social when the place comes to symbolize one’s social group.
> spatial bonds become important because they symbolize social bonds.
Two types of place attachments:
civic place attachment ( socially based place attachment) : instance of groupsymbolic place attachment
that occurs at the city level.
Natural place attachment( physically based place attachment):type of physical attachment directed
toward the natural aspects of a place.
Environmental identity: inclusion of nature into one’s selfconcept.
Strength of the attachment varies according to spatial level:
socially based place attachment was stronger than the physically based place attachment for the home
and neighborhood levels.
Physically based place attachment was stronger at the city level. Those with greater sense of emotional place attachment reported engaging in more proenvironmental
However, attachment could also be associated with fewer proenvironmental behaviors:
When a study investigated two neighborhoods of differing environmental quality, residents in the
environmentally superior neighborhood reported more place identity, but not more proenvironmental behavior.
In this case, place identity was weak and was negatively related to proenvironmental behavior because they
feel issues were of greater concern to the community.
residents in the lower quality neighborhood were less attached overall and had also low levels of pro
** overall, if individuals would strongly identify with a poor quality environment, they may be more likely to
protect, but in general, attachment does not predict proenvironmental behavior because individuals tend to
identify with environments of good quality.
Effects of a multidimensional place attachment:
Place identity and place dependence( both measures of place attachment) exerts opposite effects on attitudes
towards social and environmental conditions
p’s with a greater sense of place identity were more opposed to envt problems, but those with greater
sense of place dependence viewed these problems to be less important.
Therefore, a simple measure of place attachments doesn’t always accurately predict attitudes or willingness to
Conclusion of study:
Selfreported proenvironmental behavior is more frequent among residents who are attached to their
The TYPE of attachment is important in determining the effects of place attachment on pro
Natural place attachment predicts more proenvironmental behavior in more situations, but civic place
attachment did not. ( strongest predictor of pro envt behavior0
Physical place attachment was stronger at the city level, but social place attachment was stronger at the
Place attachment is greater for places of good environmental quality.
Not all types of place attachment depend on physical quality, but may be derived from other positive
environmental features, such as economic or social aspects.
Residents attached to a good quality neighborhood report less proenvironmental behavior, but residents
attached to a town with a good environmental quality report more pro envt behavior.
because place attachment predicts the behaviors congruent with the dominant values of the group.
residents of good quality neighborhood were concerned with other issues, but the residents of the town
value the environment.
Campaigns should encourage natural place attachment and cities should emphasize the “green” dimension of
March 10/14 reading ▯toward a wider lens ▯ Prejudice and the natural world. At first nations reserve in Ontario residents suffer from high levels of diabetes, thyroid problems, rashes, and
Surrounding the reserve there's industrial plants linked to petrochemical industry there were heavy
contamination in the area due to pollutants. First nations communities suffer from high rate of thyroid diseases
and rare cancers.
THE ENVIRONMENT AND PREJUDICE
Prejudice attitudes toward groups and attitudes about environmentalism are connected. People who are
prejudice are less concerned for the environment.
Environmental crises increase the risk of prejudice and conflict between groups as groups compete over access
to increasingly scarce natural resources.
Industries near First nations reserves cause death and health damage to animals that live in and eat from the
damaged land and water.
People who devalue nature and animals are more likely to be prejudice.