REM 100 - notes october 12th.docx

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Simon Fraser University
Resource & Environmtl Mgmt
REM 100
Neil Braganza

REM 100 – notes oct 12 Joshua McGee Ecofeminism cont. - Vandava Shova: - The Cartesian, or dualistic view, led to a development paradigm that decimates nature and women simultaneously; - The dichotomy of ‘man’ dominating women and nature leads to mal-development, as it renders the dominating, colonising male as the agent and model of development ; and through this process women, the south (or third world) become underdeveloped, first through process of naming or defining, then through colonisation as it becomes reality. - An ecologically sustainable future can draw on the world views of ancient civilisations and diverse cultures, which were able to survive and thrive sustainably over centuries; - Ecological ways of knowing nature are participatory; - By participating as silviculturalists, agriculturalists, and water resource managers (land managers) women are the traditional natural scientists; - They possess knowledge which is ecological and plural; and - Relies on both ecological and cultural diversity. Ecological Effects of War 1. Environmental disturbance and destruction from weaponry; 2. Direct consumption of resources such as timber, water and food to support armies; and 3. Indirect consumption of resources by military industrial complexes that supply the war effort. - Hupy (2003) notes that environmental disturbance has steadily increased in scale (both spatially and temporally) from ancient times to the contemporary era; - Key revolution ramped up war? Industrial revolution - Contemporary war is of greater magnitude than of warfare before the industrial revolution; - Armies and battlefields are larger; - Munitions are more powerful; - Casualty rates are higher; and - Battles (and wars) last longer, and the environmental disturbances are more widespread. - Hupy points oout that environmental disturbances has increased to a reagonal scale’ - Some ecological effects of war 1) Direct explotions of muntions (bombs) 2) Heavy vehicle traffic 3) Chemical defoliants; and 4) Pollution of the atmosphere, water and soils (both inadvertently and on purpose) Direct explosions of munitions - The early use of artillery, right up to the American Civil War (1861- 1865), left a relatively limited mark upon the landscape; - It relied upon visual contact with the enemy; - Direct fire was used over indirect fire ( firing at an unseen target based on coordinates); - This resulted in small scale battlefields when compared to contemporary war. - During the American Civil War (1861-1865) the temporal nature of battle increased; - In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries battles normally lasted several hours; - They rarely if ever went into the night; - By the end of the American Civil War it was the norm to fight at night. - However, the advancements in warfare technology introduced by the industrial age were still in their infancy. - At the end of the nineteenth century Alfred Nobel introduced the world to smokeless gunpowder, blasting caps and a new ‘safer’form of explosive called Trinitrotoluene (TNT); - WW1: Artillery took up the positions in the rear and perfected the art of indirect fire, based on the calls of forward observers; - The military objective was to indurate an area with explosive shells in order to destroy enemy defences and shatter its morale; - Artillery fire was placed directly in front of advancing troops to obliterate anything on the surface; AKA barrages in a general area - WW1 ‘Advances’ weapons technology rendered destruction beyond the scope of previous imagination.  This war was incredibly devastating in terms of human life loss and environmental. WW1 to this day, over 90 years after the fighting ended: Along the western front remnants of forest communities contain near monoculture plantings; This area is so cratered that trees wont grow WW2: Interestingly, despite increased munitions capacity, the toll exacted on the landscape was minimised due to the fluidity of the front lines when compared with WW1; However, WW2 activities in france directly destroyed over 100 milion acres of forests The pacific war: many islands endured days of naval and aerial bombardments which had a very deleterious ecological effect. WW2: A committee and scientific panel unanimously concluded on may, 1945 (Truman) 1) The bomb should be used against Japan as soon as possible; 2) It should be used against war plants surrounded by workers homes or other buildings susceptible to damage in order “to make a profound psychological impression on as many inhabitants as possible”. 3) It should be used without warning (McCullough, 1992) Post WW2 - The bi-polar world was dominatited by two global super powers, the united states and soviet union; - It was thought that rapid movement with urban areas as key military objec
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