Rem 100 Notes October 26th.docx

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Simon Fraser University
Resource & Environmtl Mgmt
REM 100
Neil Braganza

th Rem 100 Notes October 26 Josh McGee The “IPAT” framework Ehrlich & Ehrlich (1991): Impact = Population * Affluence * level of Technology Emphasises throughput Population (sheer numbers)… primarily developing world concern Affluence (consumption per person) … primarily developed world problems Technology (throughput per unit of consumption) … impact of specific technology depends on various factors Affluence and technology are related, but affluent societies can finance new technologies to ameliorate environmental problems So increasing levels of technology do not automatically increase environmental impact EG Flue gas de-sulphurisation, improved energy efficiency What causes population growth? Locally and regionally: caused by some combination of natural increase (surplus of births over deaths) The demographic Transition First stage – birth rates and death rates fluctuate, with some overall increase Second stage – death rates decline and birth rates stay high Third stage – birth rates drop to close to replacement levels Why have birth rates fallen in some countries, but not in others? “insurance births” due to infant mortality; There is a need for “many hands”; Parents depend on children to look after them Improvements in social power of women and overall standard of living can lead to decrease in the birth rate. Population and environment Population-environment links are not a simple one-way street, as in: Population growth  environmental change/degradation Instead, population growth has a complex role in environmental change ( e.g. “compounding factor”) Population Growth and “developing countries” Major differences in population growth in developed vs developing countries In many developing countries, life expectancy is higher & infant mortality lower than in Europe 100-150 years ago More children surviving and living longer means the opportunity to have children increases … Birth rates have been slower to decline, compared to developed countries IUCN/UNEP/WWF WORLD Conservation Strategy (1980) Conservation and development are mutually dependent Objectives - Maintain essential ecological processes and life-support systems - Preserve genetic diversity - Ensure sustainable utilisation of species and ecosystems Our Common Future (1987) defines sustainable development as: - “development that meets the needs of present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” RIO Declaration on Environment and Development (1992) Based on 27 principles, including: 1. Development is human centered; 2. Sovereign rights of states to exploit their own environment, with responsibility to avoid damage to other states or global commons; 3. Developmental equity between present and future generati
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