CHEM 29402 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Sulfuric Acid, Conjugate Acid, Carboxylic Acid

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9 Feb 2016
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Lecture Note 1 : Chapter 16
Browsted-Lowry theory:
-An acid “donates” an H+ ion
-A base “gains” an H+ ion
A strong acid can be determined especially when it complete disassociates in
solution
A weak acid is where most ions do not get disassociated
At 25 degree Celsius, the concentrations of more H+ and OH- ions are the same
(1.0x10^-11)
Common strong acids
1. HCL
2. HBr
3. HI
4. HNO3
5. HCLO4
6. H2SO4
Oxyacid: acid proton that is attached to oxygen
Organic acids: has a carbon atom as a backbone and contains a carboxyl group
If a substance’s concentration of:
1. [H+] > [OH-] = acidic
2. [OH-] > [H+] = basic
3. [H+] = [OH-] = neutral
pH = -log [H+]
pOH = -log [OH-]
pH+ POH = 14
Kw = [H+] [OH-]
pHrange scale
1. pH= 7 : neutral
2. pH> 7 : basic
3. pH<7 : acidic
Buffered solutions resist any changes regardless of how much strong acid gets
added to them
Characteristics of a buffer:
1. Solution contains a weak acid HA and a conjugate base A-
2. Buffer resists any changes by either reacting with H+ or OH- ions, therefore
preventing any accumulation
3. Any H+ ion reacts with A- (base)
4. OH- reacts with HA
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