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Class Notes for Biology at St. Francis Xavier University

BIO 252 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Esophageal Hiatus, Lamina Propria
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The Stomach Lower Esophageal Sphincter Very weak Esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm aids in constriction Abundant mucous glands to protect the lining of the esophagus from the acidic gastric secr...

Biology
BIO 252
Terry Li
BIO 252 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Muscularis Mucosae, Loose Connective Tissue, Lamina Propria
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Small Intestine Duodenum, jejunum, ileum Plicae circulares: circular folds in mucosasubmucosa of the small intestine to increase surface area for absorption o Surface of plicae circulares have villi and microvilli, which i...

Biology
BIO 252
Terry Li
BIO 252 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Renal Papilla, Renal Vein, Renal Capsule
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Urinary System Functions of the Kidneys Excretion of wastes (esp. nitrogenous wastes: urea, ammonia, uric acid) Regulation of blood ionic composition Regulation of blood pH Regulation of blood volume Regulation of blood pr...

Biology
BIO 252
Terry Li
BIO 252 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Extracellular Fluid, Tubular Fluid, Countercurrent Exchange
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wRenal Physiology II Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle Descending limb and thin ascending limb are permeable to water o Interstitial fluid has higher osmolarity than tubular fluid o Water is reabsorbed Thick ascending limb...

Biology
BIO 252
Terry Li
BIO 252 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Vas Deferens, Seminiferous Tubule, Rete Testis
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Male Reproductive System General Anatomy: Testis + epididymis housed in the scrotum Vas deferens Urethra: 3 sections o Prostatic o Membranous o Spongy Accessory glands: o Prostate gland o Seminal vesicles o Bulbourethral g...

Biology
BIO 252
Terry Li
BIO 252 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Ileocecal Valve, Goblet Cell, Chyme
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Large Intestine Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid Ileocecal sphincter Cecum blind ended sac, may contain appendix Ascending and descending colon are retroperitoneal; transverse and sigmoid are intraperitoneal Teni...

Biology
BIO 252
Terry Li
BIO 252 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Pancreatic Juice, Common Bile Duct, Pancreatic Islets
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Pancreas and Liver The Pancreas Head, body, tail Pancreatic duct runs along the length of the pancreas Common bile duct opens to the duodenum Pancreatic acini (99) o Exocrine glands o Secrete pancreatic juice into pancreat...

Biology
BIO 252
Terry Li
BIO 252 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Oncotic Pressure, Peritubular Capillaries, Nephron
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Renal Physiology Overview: To produce urine, nephrons and collecting ducts perform three basic processes: o Glomerular filtration: blood plasma and dissolved substances get filtered into the glomerular space) o Tubular res...

Biology
BIO 252
Terry Li
BIO 252 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Countercurrent Multiplication, Extracellular Fluid, Blood Plasma
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Renal Physiology III Urine Concentration Homeostasis of body fluid depends in large part on the kidneys ability to regulate water loss in urine Dilute urine: o High volume, low concentration o 6570 mOsmL o Four times more ...

Biology
BIO 252
Terry Li
BIO 252 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Mouth, Exocrine Gland, Deciduous Teeth
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Digestive system: Oral cavity Esophagus Oral Cavity Bounded posteriorly by an opening: fauces Oral vestibule (between lips and teethgums) and oral cavity proper Lips are attached to the gums by the labial frenulum Cheeks: ...

Biology
BIO 252
Terry Li
BIO 252 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Zona Pellucida, Folliculogenesis, Theca Interna
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Female Reproductive System General Anatomy: Ovary Fimbriae Fallopian tubes Uterus Cervix (of uterus) Vagina Clitoris Labia (minor + major) Oogenesis The formation of gametes in the ovaries Begins during early fetal develop...

Biology
BIO 252
Terry Li
BIO 251 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Reticular Cell, Elastic Fiber, Nucleolus

BIOL 251 Anatomy Physiology Epithelium Classification Epithelial tissue is classified based on 2 characters: arrangement and shape Simple: o Single layer o Good for secretion, filtration, secretion, absorption Pseudostrat...

Biology
BIO 251
All Professors
BIO 251 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Central Sulcus, Melatonin, Caudate Nucleus

Nervous system Important Cranial Nerves Optic nerve (CNII) o After cross it is a tract o Tract CNS, nerve PNS Oculomotor (CNII) movement of eyeball Trochlear (CNIV) movement of eyeball Abducens (CNVI) movement of eyeball T...

Biology
BIO 251
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BIO 203 Lecture 8: BIO-203 - Lecture 8

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Biology
BIO 203
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BIO 203 Lecture 14: BIO-203 - Lecture 14

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Biology
BIO 203
All Professors
Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle, Flexor Pollicis Longus Muscle, Abductor Digiti Minimi Muscle Of Hand

perm ach artsMT T rigger Points II: Extremities T rigger Points II: Extremities ...

ANAT - Anatomy
ANAT 14
All Professors
ANAT - Anatomy
ANAT 14
All Professors
ANAT - Anatomy
ANAT 14
All Professors
Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Sacral Plexus, Lumbar Plexus, Sympathetic Ganglion

pe rm a ch ar ts MT Spinal Cord 2nd EDITION Figure ...

ANAT - Anatomy
ANAT 14
All Professors
Multicellular Biology - Reference Guides

This Guide is the progressive companion to the Cellular Biology title. The complexities of human physiology are made much clearer through the bright graphics and intelligently coordinated text boxes and glossaries that are...

ANAT - Anatomy
ANAT 14
All Professors
Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Levator Veli Palatini, Orbicularis Oculi Muscle, Scalene Muscles

Muscular System: pe rm ac ha rts MT Head & Torso 2nd EDITION ...

ANAT - Anatomy
ANAT 14
All Professors
ANAT - Anatomy
ANAT 14
All Professors
ANAT - Anatomy
ANAT 14
All Professors
Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Heart Valve, Inferior Vena Cava, Pulmonary Valve

permacharts TM Cardiovascular Physiology 2nd EDITION HEART STRUCTURE & FUNCTION ...

ANAT - Anatomy
ANAT 14
All Professors
ANAT - Anatomy
ANAT 14
All Professors
Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Meiosis, Nuclear Membrane, Nuclear Pore

l e a r n • r e f e r e n c e • r e v i e w permacharts TM CCellular Biology BIOLOGY BASICS C...

ANAT - Anatomy
ANAT 14
All Professors
Cellular Respiration - Reference Guides

The specific aspects of cellular respiration are explained in this helpful Guide. The fundamental processes such as the electron transport chain, proton pumps, ATP synthetase, and glycolysis are each described with helpful...

ANAT - Anatomy
ANAT 14
All Professors
Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Submandibular Duct, Parotid Duct, Palatine Tonsil

pe rm a ch a rtsMT DDigestive System 2nd EDITION Fi...

ANAT - Anatomy
ANAT 14
All Professors
Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Antigen-Presenting Cell, Memory T Cell, Clonal Deletion

permacharts TM IImmunology 2nd EDITION G ENERAL INFORMATION - AN OVERVIEW ...

ANAT - Anatomy
ANAT 14
All Professors
Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Superior Frontal Sulcus, Inferior Parietal Lobule, Superior Frontal Gyrus

p erm ac hartsMT Brain 2nd EDITION FIGURE 1: GROSS ANATOMY (LATERAL VIEW) ...

ANAT - Anatomy
ANAT 173
All Professors
Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Superficial Palmar Arch, Costocervical Trunk, Thyrocervical Trunk

p erm a ch ar tsMT CCirculatory System 2nd EDITION Figure...

Biology
BI 361
All Professors

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