CHAPTER 11. MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
Motivation – What is motivation?
- Influences that account for the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of
o Motive: A reason or purpose of the behavior.
o Four general sources:
1. Biological Factors
- Food, water, sex temperature regulation …
2. Emotional Factors
- Panic, fear, anger, love, hatred …
3. Cognitive Factor
- Perception, beliefs, expectations …
4. Social Factors
- Parents, teachers, friends, siblings, television …
Theories of motivation
o Instinct Theory (internal processes)
Explaining behavior as instinct.
Instincts are automatic, involuntary behaviour patterns consistently
triggered or “released” by certain stimuli.
Also called fixed-action patterns because they are unlearned, genetically
Problem: Doesn’t explain the behavior …
o Evolutionary Perspective (Newer instinct theory)
Certain behaviours have evolved to assure our survival
Ex: fear of snakes, because they are dangerous …
o Drive-reduction Theory (internal processes)
Based also on biological factors, but based on the concept of homeostasis.
Homeostasis: body in a calm state – normal, balanced …
Biological requirement for well-being …
Primary drives – biological needs: food, water, oxygen …
Secondary drives – “learned drives”: money … o Arousal Theory (internal processes)
Suggests that people are motivated to behave in ways to keep them at
their optimal level of arousal.
Optimal level = different for everyone
Seek relaxation when level is too high, excitement when it is too low.
o Incentive Theory (external processes)
Emphasizes the role of environmental stimuli that can motivate behavior.
People act in ways to receive positive stimuli, and avoid negative stimuli.
Wanting stimuli vs liking stimuli
Wanting is being attracted to this stimuli
Liking is the automatic realisation that this stimuli is pleasurable
People are more motivated by wants
o Achievement Theory
Often developed while young
Influenced by parents
Extrinsic motivation: want for external rewards – ex: money
Intrinsic motivation: intrinsically good – internal
Workers motivated by many factors:
1. Have a say in decisions
2. Given problems to solve
3. Taught more skills
4. Given responsibility
5. Given public recognition
Over justification effect: never give an extrinsic reward if the behavior is
Extrinsic reward will replace intrinsic value
Goal Type Mastery Performance
Approach Strive to improve Strive to win
Avoidance Strive to not get worse Strive to not lose Maslow`s hierarchy …
a. Biological – food, water, oxygen …
b. Safety – need to be cared for as a child, and financially secure as an adult
c. Belongingness and Love – need to be part of a group and participate in
affectionate sexual and non-sexual relationships
d. Esteem – need to be respected as a useful, honourable individual
e. Self –actualization – maximizing ones potential
HUNGER AND EATING