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CHAPTER 11 - motivation and emotion notes.docx

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Brad Mc Kay

CHAPTER 11. MOTIVATION AND EMOTION Motivation – What is motivation? - Influences that account for the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior. o Motive: A reason or purpose of the behavior. o Four general sources: 1. Biological Factors - Food, water, sex temperature regulation … 2. Emotional Factors - Panic, fear, anger, love, hatred … 3. Cognitive Factor - Perception, beliefs, expectations … 4. Social Factors - Parents, teachers, friends, siblings, television … Theories of motivation o Instinct Theory (internal processes)  Explaining behavior as instinct.  Instincts are automatic, involuntary behaviour patterns consistently triggered or “released” by certain stimuli.  Also called fixed-action patterns because they are unlearned, genetically codes responses.  Problem: Doesn’t explain the behavior … o Evolutionary Perspective (Newer instinct theory)  Certain behaviours have evolved to assure our survival  Ex: fear of snakes, because they are dangerous … o Drive-reduction Theory (internal processes)  Based also on biological factors, but based on the concept of homeostasis.  Homeostasis: body in a calm state – normal, balanced …  Biological requirement for well-being …  Primary drives – biological needs: food, water, oxygen …  Secondary drives – “learned drives”: money … o Arousal Theory (internal processes)  Suggests that people are motivated to behave in ways to keep them at their optimal level of arousal.  Optimal level = different for everyone  Seek relaxation when level is too high, excitement when it is too low. o Incentive Theory (external processes)  Emphasizes the role of environmental stimuli that can motivate behavior.  People act in ways to receive positive stimuli, and avoid negative stimuli.  Wanting stimuli vs liking stimuli  Wanting is being attracted to this stimuli  Liking is the automatic realisation that this stimuli is pleasurable  People are more motivated by wants o Achievement Theory  Often developed while young  Influenced by parents  Malleable  Achievement motivation  Extrinsic motivation: want for external rewards – ex: money  Intrinsic motivation: intrinsically good – internal  Workers motivated by many factors: 1. Have a say in decisions 2. Given problems to solve 3. Taught more skills 4. Given responsibility 5. Given public recognition  Over justification effect: never give an extrinsic reward if the behavior is intrinsic.  Extrinsic reward will replace intrinsic value  Achievement goals Goal Type Mastery Performance Approach Strive to improve Strive to win Avoidance Strive to not get worse Strive to not lose Maslow`s hierarchy … a. Biological – food, water, oxygen … b. Safety – need to be cared for as a child, and financially secure as an adult c. Belongingness and Love – need to be part of a group and participate in affectionate sexual and non-sexual relationships d. Esteem – need to be respected as a useful, honourable individual e. Self –actualization – maximizing ones potential HUNGER AND EATING o Hu
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