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Human Development notes.docx

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Brad Mc Kay

Human Development o Developmental Psychology?  The psychological specialty that documents the course of social, emotional, moral and intellectual development over the life span. Prenatal Development o Stages of development 1. Conception results in a Zygote  Zygote: cell containing both parents genes 2. Germinal stage (2weeks) 3. Embryonic stage (critical period)  Development of heart nervous system, stomach, esophagus, and ovaries or testicles 4. Fetal stage (last 7months) o Prenatal risks  Teratogens: harmful substances that can cause birth defects  Fetal alcohol syndrome: mental retardation and facial deformations o Newborn  Vision, hearing and smelling  Reflexes/Motor skills:  Grasping reflex  Rooting reflex  Sucking reflex Infancy and Childhood o Piaget’s Theory: cognitive ability develops in periods/stages  Sensorimotor period (Birth - 2yrs old)  Their mental representations are restricted to objects immediately present  Lack object permanence  Preoperational stage (2yrs – 7yrs)  when infants can form schemas of objects and people who are not present  2 to 4, children begin to understand symbols  4 to 7, they begin making intuitive guesses about the world around them - Animism: belief that inanimate objects are alive and have intentions and a consciousness - Egocentric: believe others view the world from their own perspective - Lack conservation (sharing/counting video)  Concrete Operational stage (7yrs – 11yrs)  Developed ability to conserve  Can think logically about things that are real and concrete, not abstract  Formal Operational stage (11yrs – adulthood)  Have developed the ability to reason abstractly (deductive reasoning)  2 important processes help in the development of schemas  Assimilation  Accommodation o Critique of Piaget **  Development happens in waves Temperament o Easy babies  Most common  Eat and get sleepy at predictable times  React to new situations cheerfully  Often stay easy through childhood o Difficult babies  Irregu
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