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Social Psychology.docx

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Brad Mc Kay

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Social Psychology o The study of how people’s thoughts, feelings and behaviours influence, and are influenced by the behaviour of others o Social cognition  Our thinking about others  Social cues – good at predicting human behaviour o Social influence  Experiment on men urinating o Self-concept  Who you are – how you define yourself  How you relate to other people in a social construct o Self-esteem  Self-value - Value yourself as an important individual Social Comparison o Temporal comparison (mastery – Sports psych)  Comparing yourself now / 2 years ago o Social comparison  Comparing yourself now to someone else now  Depends who you compare yourself to => Reference group o Relative deprivation  Relative to people “better than you”, you’re deprived => upward social comparison - Comparing yourself to people who aren’t “socially equal” Social Theory o Social Identity  Our beliefs about the groups to which we belong o Self-schema  Schema de toi-même  includes social identity o Schemas in social perception  First impressions  grows into ideas/perception of people  Assimilation: attach newly learned traits(good) onto someone’s schema  Accommodation: something very extreme – trumps most of the existing schema. o Self-fulfilling prophecies  You believe someone will behave a certain way, so you act in a way that causes them to behave that way  Ex: you think someone is friendly, so you’re friendly to them, causing them to be friendly… Attribution o We explain behaviour as having internal and external causes o The fundamental attribution error  Over estimation that what people do is because of THEM – not external factor o Ultimate attribution error  Blaming groups based on their fundamental internal characteristics  Why do we do this? Actor-observer bias Self-serving bias: Taking credit for success as a result of internal factors Blaming our failures on external factors Attitudes o What is an attitude?  Predisposition toward a particular cognitive, affective or behavioural reaction towards objects. o Thoughts and feelings are often inconsistent  Ex: I don’t have a problem with gay marriage, but I don’t want to see it. o Subjective norms affect behaviour o Having direct experience with an object causes a more stable attitude. Attitude Formation and Change o Learned associations  Ex: people will respond faster if there is a white person and a positive word, than if there if a black person with a positive word o Mere exposure effect  You begin liking something you’re exposed to often enough  Ex: same commercials o Changing attitude ( two ways )  Peripheral: cues that don’t involve a conscious process  Central: logic Cognitive dissonance o Based on the desire for thoughts, feelings and behav
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