CHAPTER 7. MEMORY
TYPES OF MEMORY
o Explicit: Intentionally remember
o Implicit: Unintentionally remember through influence of memories
Episodic: Memory of an event or situation where you were present
Semantic: General knowledge about the world
Procedural memory: Memory of how to do things
o Encoding: Transferring information to memory
o Storage: holds information in memory over time
o Retrieval: recalling information that has been stored
o Sensory memory
o Short-term Memory
o Long-term Memory
Issues with short term memory suggests issues with long term memory, because
you won’t be able to make the transition
o Amnesia: Accidental, but permanent or partial loss of memory
TRYING TO UNDERSTAND HOW MEMORY WORKS…
o Levels of Processing Model
How well information is remembered is influenced by how much cognitive
energy/effort is devoted to it.
Rehearsal is a strategy devoting more cognitive processing in order to remember
- Maintenance rehearsal
- Elaborative rehearsal
o Transfer-appropriate Processing Model
Memory works best when the conditions at the time of encoding are the same as
to the conditions at the time or retrieval.
o Parallel Distributed Processing Model
New memories are added to our existing knowledge base.
More information = development and increasing intellectual sophistication. o Information Processing Model
Memory works like an assembly line
- Info is held briefly 1s in sensory memory before being transferred
- Sensory info in attended to and attributed meaning in short-term or working
memory for as long as 20s Perception
- Elaboration of perceptual memory can lead to storage in long term memory.
WHERE ARE NEW MEMORIES STORED?...
o Sensory Memory
Holds large amounts of info for short period of time.
o Short Term Memory
Info has gone through perceptual processing but is being held until we decide
what to do with it.
We can usually hold between 5 and 7 “pieces” of info
Info held for about 20s
o Working Memory
Allows us to manipulate info being held in short term memory
o Long-term Memory
Long lasting st