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Anthro Week 7 lecture notes.docx

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Trent University
ANTH 1010H
Jocelyn Williams

Anthro Week 7: Modern Human Origins Modern Humans - Archaic forms of modern humans first appeared ca. 350kya o Development of modern humans took place at different times in different places - First modern humans appeared in Africa around 160,000 years ago and later in Europe - These populations dispersed from Africa to most other parts of the world by at least 40,000 years ago - These modern humans replaced pre-existing archaic populations o Ex. Neanderthals If modern humans existed 150,000 years ago, why did it take them 100,000 years to disperse to other parts of the world? 3 hypotheses for modern human origins: 1. Complete replacement (out of Africa) o AMHS (anatomically modern Homo sapiens) arose in Africa ca. 200kya migrated and replaced all archaic Homo living in Europe and Asia o Speciation event o No biological mixture with European forms (eg. Neanderthals) because Africa AMHS were new species o Supported by DNA evidence  Africans have greater genetic diversity than anywhere else  mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA – passed down from mother) from 8 Neanderthals (1997-2004)  very different from AMHS  mtDNA from 9 AMHS (2004)  Similar to modern humans (contamination?)  significantly different from Neanderthal DNA 2. Regional continuity (multiregional) o Local populations evolved into regionally distinct AMHS o Gene flow between prevented speciation o Founding population not from Africa o Essentially falsified 3. Assimilation or partial replacement o Similar to complete replacement except not a speciation event o Allows for some mixture between African Homo sapiens and regional archaic Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and newly migrating Homo sapiens from Africa o Neanderthals contribute genes to European and European-descended populations  Supported by DNA evidence: sequencing of Neanderthal genome Homo neanderthalensis - 200 – 30 kya - Spain to Afghanistan - None have been found in Africa o Middle east is southernmost range - None have been found in east Asia - Found in a wide variety of ecological zones o Open temperate grasslands in N. Europe to Mediterranean-climate woodlands in Middle East Neanderthal Anatomy - Modern-sized brains (higher average cranial capacity than moderns) - Low and long skull - Occipital bun - Facial morphology o Huge nasal cavity o Projecting midface – puffed o Space behind third molar o Little, if any, chin o M-shaped brow ridge - Comparatively short limbs - Very robust (heavily muscled) - Wider rib cage Neanderthal Biology - Hyoid bone identical to modern humans - FOXP2 gene, which makes human speech possible, present in Neanderthal genome Neanderthals in Human Evolution - Shares a common ancestor with H.s.s - Extinct lineage o Some transitional forms suggest interbreeding - Disappear from fossil record around 25,000 years ago Molecular Evidence against Interbreeding - mtDNA indicated 3X more differences between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans that within modern humans - mtDNA from AMHS shows link to Central Europeans, none for Neanderthals - nuclear DNA: no contribution of Neanderthal DNA to modern human DNA Molecular Evidence for Interbreeding - Human genome was sequenced in 2010 - Compared chromosomal DNA from 6,000 individuals from around the world to the Neanderthal genome o 9% of these individuals outside of Africa share a haplotype (genetic markers on a chromosome) with Neanderthals - Compared to genomes from 5 individuals o 3 individuals from outside of Africa had 1-4% of their genome in common with Neanderthals Neanderthal Tools – Mousterian Tools - 250,000 – 40,000 - Variety in shape of flakes and some blade-based assemblages - Efficient - Hafting into spears - Relied heavily on big game hunting o Supported by fracture patterns  Traumatic lesions are common in Neanderthals
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