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Lecture 9

HIST 2200Y Lecture 9: Lecture 9 - Towards the Soviet Revolution (Nov. 20)

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HIST 2200Y
Antonio Cazorla- Sánchez

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HIST-2200Y November 20, 2013
Towards the Soviet Revolution
A Tradition of Autocracy
Julian Calendar – used by Russians, 13 days behind the Gregorian calendar,
changing historical dates
Gregorian Calendar – internationally used, still used today
Romanov, 1613-1917 – ruling family, changed their name later on, Peter the Great
was the founder of St. Petersburg (vision of a capital that was open to the sea,
many people died trying to build this capital), multi-ethic empire
Russia started their industrial revolution, railway was greatly expanded
Russia’s empire was mostly expanding to the east heading towards Asia
A lot of suffering from the Russians, French investors towards the Russian
revolution, Russia needed to raise money through exporting, they gave a high
annual rate of gain to trade
An industrial revolution before an agricultural revolution which meant that the
agriculture could not sustain the population
Gain was taken from peasants and sold to international markets, Russian peasants
were hungry
Workers in the city were not better off, they lived in appalling conditions and
working is horrible conditions, basically uprooted peasants
St. Petersburg was the most unhealthy capital in Europe, 14,000 dying from
illness (cholera)
Russia had no parliament, it was absolute monarchy
The Russian church was not a mediator
Workers salaries were extremely low, number of workers were low
Jews were not implemented into society, they were forced to live in the “Pale”,
they could not move out of there without special permission, Nazis armies would
attack here against these poor Jews
Crimea – near the Black sea, there was a war there, Russia vs. the Ottoman
empire, since the Ottoman empire was so small and weak France and Britain sent
a small army that defeated Russia, this provided that even though Russia was a
vast empire they needed a stronger army
Emperor = Czar
Zemtvos – a form of local government that was instituted during the great liberal
reforms performed in Imperial Russia by Alexander II of Russia
Alexander II, 1855-81 – reforming the empire, liberated the serfs (practically
slaves), never gave a constitution to Russia (thinking about it but didn’t),
murdered by terrorists by bomb, died in the arms of his beloved second life
Alexander III, 1881-94 – stopped any policy of modernization, stopped anything
his father was thinking about, he died in 1894 from kidney failure, his son
Nicholas replaced him
Nicholas was a character with many relationships, ended up marrying, had 4 girls
then the fifth child was a boy (Nicholas II) who was born with hemophilia (if you
cut yourself you will bleed to death, only suffered in males, no cure, mother tried
to find the cure in religion), the family had strong religious feelings
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