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Lecture 15

HIST 2200Y Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Bukovina, Clement Attlee, Nuremberg


Department
History
Course Code
HIST 2200Y
Professor
Antonio Cazorla- Sánchez
Lecture
15

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HIST-2200Y January 29, 2014
The Legacy of World War II
The End of the War
Germany had reached the maximum of expansion in the summer, until stopped by
Russia
In January 1943 after taking Marco, Churchill and Roosevelt meet at Casablanca
(means white house), Soviet realized that the other side (France) will try a
separate peace, Soviet is going to fight until Germany surrenders, the dynamic of
no way out, fighting until the end
July 1943 Mussolini was overthrown and Italy withdrew from the war, secretly
they tried to create peace with the Americans, Germany finds out and they invade
the North, Italian army is fighting in Yugoslavia and Greece, not enough army to
be able to fight in Italy
Allies learned how to fight the Germans in Italy
December 1943 Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met in Teheran for the Teheran
conference, how they were going to win the war
Yalta – in the black sea, another conference
The Nazis were encouraged to fight harder because they knew they would be
demilitarized
Europe was very badly destroyed after the war, badly damage in Germany,
Poland, and the Soviet Union
Most of the ports, railways, bridges were destroyed
There was a huge house shortage
Russia wanted the Nazis to pay for the damage, Britain did not want that in fear
that the East countries would turn to communism
Roosevelt thought Germany should pay in goods and services (weapons, food,
etc.), this would be different than WWI which caused a lot of economic problems
for Europe
Capacity expanded for the making of goods, although there was not demand for
them because they could not afford them
There was a shortage of workers due to the loss of men
America controlled half of the world trade
The economy was extremely delicate
Displaced populations, mass immigrations
Millions of civilians were forced out of their homes
Prussia – eastern part of Germany, 5 million Germans had escaped from the
advancing Soviet troops, left their homes, were to Poland or Soviet Union after
the war and were not allowed to come back
Silesia and Pomerania – 1945 winter there is an ethic cleansing, 7 million German
were expelled from estates where they were minorities, they sided with the other
side and were considered traitors after the war
12-13 million Germans left when they could, they were attacked by peasants
Collaborators – in France 9-10 thousand were executed or murdered, 15,000 in
Italy, 200,000 were investigated in Poland although only 40 were executed
By 1950 many countries pardoned the collaborators
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