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Lecture 2

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PSYC 1030H
Brenda Smith- Chant

Week 2: Research Methods and Ethics Research Design - The Capilano Bridge Experiment (example) o Theory:  When physiological arousal occurs:  Use environmental cues  Determine reason for arousal o Emotion then identified o Hypothesis  Unambiguous physiological arousal (fear) will be labelled as something else (sexual attraction) under specific circumstances  Environmental cues will cause the change o Research question:  Males induced to be physiologically aroused (fear), but will label it as physiological attraction o Methods  Participants – males (18-35)  Control condition – solid bridge  Experimental condition – Capilano bridge  Test of ambiguous moods o Score of interest – sexual imagery (and fear)  Taken by a confederate at the end of either bridge  Half met by male confederate  Other half met by attractive female confederate  Test of scenarios, determined by interpretation (mood)  In addition to the survey, given debriefing and contact information with the female assistants phone number  Allowed a further group for study (if they called the assistant for “more info”) o Results  Participants who crossed the Capilano  Female confederate o More sexual imagery o More likely to call the assistant afterwards  Male confederate  Participants who crossed the stable bridge  No differences in meeting male or female confederate o Conclusion  Salient and relevant environmental cues influence the perception of sexual attraction instead of fear  Arousal combines with cognitive labelling to produce distinct emotions - Design of research methods o Is dictated by the research question o Limits the types of answers that can result - Pick a research method o Each has strengths / weaknesses  Case studies  Observational studies  Experimental designs  True experiments o Answer questions about correlation  Quasi-experiments o  Correlational studies  Relations between data, no manipulation - Data collection is the most difficult part of the research process o Must be valid, accurate – how do you know?  Everything must be the exact same – greetings, reactions to answers, etc. (standardization) - Peer review o Blind review – anonymously reviewed  Given to people the author has never worked with previously (in the same field)  Make recommendations, resubmitted o Trying to minimize the amount of studies with false data - Scientific discourse o Replication o Reaction of other researchers o Resulting questions, next study - Confound variable o Wasn’t planned in the experiment but has impacted results o Try to minimize Ethics in Research - Mengele twin studies in Nazi Germany during WWII - Nuremberg Code (1948)
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