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Psych Week 7 lecture notes.docx

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Trent University
PSYC 1030H
Brenda Smith- Chant

Psych Week 7: Developmental Psychology - The study of changes in behaviour and mental processes o Child development o Adolescent development o Aging o Family o Exceptional development o Sexuality - To capture change, must study things in context of time o Longitudinal studies  Measure a specific variable at TIME 1  Measure again at a later point – TIME 2  Development: TIME 2 – TIME 1  Can look at multiple times  A famous study:  Perry preschool project o 1962 (ages 3 and 4) inner city, African-American families o N=123 o Randomly assigned to one of two groups:  Intervention, preschool based on Piaget  Control: no preschool o Followed to age 40 to see the impact of early childhood education o Compared IQ and behaviour over lifetime  Issues  Following over time takes time  Very expensive  Participant mortality o Drop out or can’t find  Historic effects o Events that only happen to these kids (e.g. 9/11) o Cross-sectional  Measure different age groups across a variety of ages, all at a single point in time  Year 1 (our only time point)  3 year olds  5 year olds  13 year olds, etc.  Issues  Much cheaper  Need more people  Different individuals in each group o May have different historic effects o May not have same outcomes - Behavioural changes across the lifespan o Lifespan stages o Different aspects important at different stages  Research issues wide ranging Prenatal Development - 3 distinct phases 1. Germinal phase (zygote) – first 2 weeks after conception  Many fertilized eggs don’t make it past this stage  Estimated that 4 in 5 zygotes fail to implant and grow properly (80%)  Genetic mutations  Hormonal issues  Teratogens  Vast majority – cause unknown 2. Embryonic stage – 2 weeks to 2 months  Vital organs and bodily systems established  Heart  Brain  Spine  Embryo very sensitive to toxins, pathogens, and nutrition 3. Fetal stage – 2 months to birth  Major developments of the brain, requiring fat deposits (myelinisation of neural cells)  Age of viability  Age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth o Dramatic change with technology o Possible between 22-26 weeks (rare) o 85% survival rate 26-28 weeks Teratogenic Factors - Average for women to determine pregnancy – 2.5 months - Percentage of unplanned pregnancies in Canada – 50% - Cat litter boxes - Hot tubs - Aspirin - Hot dogs and other cured meats, etc. Genetic and Prenatal Screening - Older technology o Alpha-Fetoprotein Test (AFP)  Too high or too low  Too high – problems with thorax
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