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Lecture 10

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Trent University
PSYC 1030H
Brenda Smith- Chant

Psych Lecture 10: Psychological Treatment and Therapies The Psychological Approach to Mental Illness Exam - All text and lecture material - 100 m/c questions Terms to be Aware of: - Patient vs. client o Patient  Associated with biomedical model  Hospital settings o Client  Associated with socio-dynamic model  Social services The Players: - Therapist - Behavioural technician - Social worker - Counselling psychologist - Clinical psychologist - Psychiatrist Treatment Consideration - Theoretical outlook is a major factor in treatment approach: o Neuropsychological/medical o Psychodynamic o Behavioural/cognitive o Humanistic - Examination of Schizophrenia treatment from different perspectives Schizophrenia - Progression o Onset can be sudden or gradual o Course is variable  Sudden and/or later onset:  Milder form  Often successful treatment, full recovery  Gradual and/or early onset  Often more chronic  Difficult to treat o Males more impacted than females (1, 4:1) - Causes o Genetic predisposition o Early environment o Recreational drugs?  Dopamine receptors implicated, but may be a bunch of different disorders lumped together - Treatment o Psychodynamic  Internal conflict (id, ego, superego)  Schizophrenia is a poor ‘ego defense mechanism’  Problems with this approach:  No more effective than no treatments or treatment as usual o Early neurobiological/medical  Focus on malfunctioning brain  Intervene with neurological messages  Associated with problem behaviours  Focus on disruptive o Lobotomy  1888 Burckhardt removed cortex  6 patients with hallucinations  3 died, 1 cured, 2 ‘quieter’  1930’s Moniz developed the prefrontal leucotomy (Nobel Prize 1949) o The Icepick method  Nerve fibres connecting the frontal cortex and thalamus severed  Renders many passive and childlike  Done in Canada 1944 – 1981  Reduction of problematic behaviours  Used beyond schizophrenia  Not always treatment related  Ease staffing shortages  Experimental  Curiosity  Consent of person and/or family was NOT always obtained o Anti-psychotic drugs  Reduce psychotic symptoms (hyperactivity, mental confusion, hallucinations, delusions  Works in 70% of patients, but gradual  Issues  Frequent discontinuation  Tardive dyskinesia (30% of cases) marked by involuntary writhing, tics o There is no cure o Permanent
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