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Lecture 4

PSYC 2700H Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Trolley Problem, Limbic System, PolygenismPremium

5 pages98 viewsFall 2017

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2700H
Professor
Jared Allen
Lecture
4

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Lecture 4- October 2, 2017
Confirmation Bias: Superstition
- Ex. Crosby has a long list of pre-game rituals that cannot be messed with, but his most important
one, is that he cant see or speak to his mom or sister on game days
o Why? Because every time he does, he gets injured
- Did I see Family?
Did I get injured? Yes No
Yes A B
No C D
- Confirmation bias: recalling only A, D
- Belief perseverance: explaining away B, C
Well-studied Biases:
- Representativeness heuristic: we use knowledge of the category of a thing to make decisions
about it
o Legall Blode: You got ito Haad La?
o E.g., marijuana: But it’s ediie! But it’s a dug!
o Which set of lottery numbers is more likely to win?
9-9-9-9-9-9
1-7-3-4-4-8 (we assume this one, because it looks more random)
- WYSIATI (What you see if all there is) bias: we tend to make decisions as though the presently
available information is all that matters
o E.g., I ke he I fist sa ou that ou’d e a good eploee
o e just ee thought to ask hat ifoatio e ee issig fo ou sue,
decision, etc)
o ou ae the 999,999th visitor: congratulatios ou WON! hae to ig the eistee
of scammers to mind)
- Framing: The way the same information is presented can influence decisions we make about it
o E.g., professional risk assessors presented with a case of a person with
A. a  i  hae of eoffedig e tho ouseles iagiail ito this
statistic)
B. a % hae of eoffedig
Asked whether they recommended release. The frame a results in twice as
many decisions to not release the individual
- What is focal is causal
Camera Perspective: who talked/led more?
o Coercing the defendant into confessing. The camera should show both parties so it is
not bias
- What feels most steals most (attention)
o Example: Keys
Holding versus gripping versus pointing
o Example: Car
Impacted versus collided versus smashed
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false memories
o More emotional descriptors More narrative focus
Thinking of death (explicitly or implicitly) can influence our decisions
- E.g., increase punitiveness
o Setting bond/bail in a prostitution case
o (real Arizona judges participating in a study)
o Oe goup pies the idea of death, ad the othe oe did’t
o Condition1: take a personality test that has a subtle reminder of their morality
o Condition 2: the same test without that reminder
o Average bond/bail in condition 2: $50
o Average bond/bail in condition 1: $455
Fuzzy Trace Theory
- We simultaneously get gist and verbatim info
- But they go separate places
- Gist causes us to think of all possible verbatim info
- Familiarity of gist over-confidence in details
- More stress worse non-central detail recall
- Weapon-focus: people are really good at remembering the weapon that is pointed at them. But
not the basic features of the face
- Retrieval-induced forgetting: when we access memories, we re-fire those neurons. New things
can e tied to the eo as ou’e eeeig it. If ou ig it up i a stessful situatio,
you may remember the memory as being stressful. If someone asks if there was a balloon in the
background, you may begin to remember a balloon being in the background
Context
- Our decisions are influenced by context
- Often in ways we would not consider
- Ad ofte i as e aot shut off
Trolley problem
- An out-of-control trolley will kill five people at the end of its track
- You can stop the trolley (and save the five people) by pushing a large person in front of it (killing
the large person)
- Most people would not push the large person
o Only 20% say they would
That is, when asked in their first language
o When asked in their second language, 50% said they would push the large person
- First language is tied closer to the limbic system
- Conclusion: first language system 1; second language system 2
The more you believe the world is dangerous, the more likely you are to be influence by (arbitrary and
irrelevant) danger cues (like dim light) to endorse racist stereotypes
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