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Lecture 4

PSYC 2700H Lecture 4: Lecture 4- October 2nd, 2017

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PSYC 2700H
Jared Allen

Lecture 4- October 2, 2017 Confirmation Bias: Superstition - Ex. Crosby has a long list of pre-game rituals that cannot be messed with, but his most important one, is that he cant see or speak to his mom or sister on game days o Why? Because every time he does, he gets injured - Did I see Family? Did I get injured? Yes No Yes A B No C D - Confirmation bias: recalling only A, D - Belief perseverance: explaining away B, C Well-studied Biases: - Representativeness heuristic: we use knowledge of the category of a thing to make decisions about it o Legally Blonde: You got into Harvard Law? o E.g., marijuana: But its medicine! But its a drug! o Which set of lottery numbers is more likely to win? 9-9-9-9-9-9 1-7-3-4-4-8 (we assume this one, because it looks more random) - WYSIATI (What you see if all there is) bias: we tend to make decisions as though the presently available information is all that matters o E.g., I knew when I first saw you that youd be a good employee o we just never thought to ask what information we were missing (from our survey, decision, etc) o you are the 999,999 visitor: congratulations you WON! (have to bring the existence of scammers to mind) - Framing: The way the same information is presented can influence decisions we make about it o E.g., professional risk assessors presented with a case of a person with A. a 1 in 10 chance of reoffending (we throw ourselves imaginarily into this statistic) B. a 10% chance of reoffending Asked whether they recommended release. The frame a results in twice as many decisions to not release the individual - What is focal is causal Camera Perspective: who talked/led more? o Coercing the defendant into confessing. The camera should show both parties so it is not bias - What feels most steals most (attention) o Example: Keys Holding versus gripping versus pointing o Example: Car Impacted versus collided versus smashed false memories o More emotional descriptors More narrative focus Thinking of death (explicitly or implicitly) can influence our decisions - E.g., increase punitiveness o Setting bond/bail in a prostitution case o (real Arizona judges participating in a study) o One group primes the idea of death, and the other one didnt o Condition1: take a personality test that has a subtle reminder of their morality o Condition 2: the same test without that reminder o Average bond/bail in condition 2: $50 o Average bond/bail in condition 1: $455 Fuzzy Trace Theory - We simultaneously get gist and verbatim info - But they go separate places - Gist causes us to think of all possible verbatim info - Familiarity of gist over-confidence in details - More stress worse non-central detail recall - Weapon-focus: people are really good at remembering the weapon that is pointed at them. But not the basic features of the face - Retrieval-induced forgetting: when we access memories, we re-fire those neurons. New things can be tied t
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