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Lecture 2

PSYC 3420H Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Dieting, Cortisol, Ghrelin


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3420H
Professor
Fergal O' Hagan
Lecture
2

Page:
of 3
Lecture 2 & Chapter Three - Thurs May 14
Chapter Three
Introduction
Learning Goals
oElaborate the 3 key principles of brain function related to emotion and
explain how aroused motivation and emotion occur
oIdentify the brain structures implicated in approach and avoidance
motivation and arousal
oIdentify the key neurotransmitter pathways implicated in motivation and
emotion
The Motivated and Emotional Brain
o Why is the brain important?
Thinking Brain;
Cognitive and Intellectual Functions
What task it is doing
Motivated Brain;
Whether you want to do it
Emotional Brain
What you mood is while doing it
oAll states include brain participation
Three Principles
oSpecific brain structures generate specific motivational states
(Hypothalamus - Hunger)
Damage to states take away the experience of specific
states
oBiochemical agents stimulate these brain structures
(Ghrelin - Hypothalamus - Hunger)
oDay to day events stir biochemical agents into action
(Dieting - Ghrelin - Hypothalamus - Hunger)
The Emotional Brain
oEnvironmental Event
Unexpected Pleasant event occurs
oBiochemical agent
Dopamine
oBrain Structure
Dopamine stimulates limbic structures
oAroused Emotion
Feeling good, pleasure
Approach Oriented Brain Structures
oHypothalamus
Pleasurable feelings associated with feeding, drinking mating
Controls the pituitary gland
Controls hormones for arousal
Starts sympathetic nervous system for fight or flight
reactions
oMedial Forebrain Bundle
Pleasure, reinforcement
Bridge function
Forms the pleasure centre
oOrbitofrontal Cortex
Learning the incentive value of events, making choices
oSeptal Area
Pleasure centre associated with sociability, sexuality
oNucleus Accumbens
Pleasurable experience of reward, hotspot for liking
oAnterior Cingulate Cortex
Mood, volition, making choices
Inactive during depression
oCerebral Cortex (Frontal Lobes)
Making plans, setting goals, formulating intentions
oLeft Prefrontal Cerebral Cortex
Approach motivational tendencies
"I will" power center
oMedial Prefrontal Cerebral Cortex
Learning response-outcome contingencies that underlie perceived
control beliefs and mastery motivation
"I want this" power centre
Avoidance Oriented Brain Structures
oRight Prefrontal Cerebral Cortex
Withdraw motivational and emotional tendencies
"I don’t want this" power center
Associated with negative moods like depression
oAmygdala
Detecting and responding to threat and danger
Acts as a warning center
Reading emotions in others
Emotional Intelligence
oHippocampus
Behaviour inhibition system during unexpected events
Detects safe places, used to determine threatening and
non threatening environments
Neurotransmitter Pathways
oDopamine
Dopamine Release - Emotional Positivity - Enhanced Functioning
Creativity and insightful problem solving
Dopamine Release and Incentives
Incentives (stimuli that foreshadow rewards) triggers
dopamine release
Dopamine Release and Reward
Release teaches us which events in the environment are
rewarding
Dopamine and Motivated Action
Release activates voluntary goal-directed approach
responses
Addictions
Addictive drugs are potent reinforcers because their
repeated usage produces hypersensitivity to dopamine stimulation
Liking and Wanting
For full experience of reward, both liking and wanting need
to occur together
oSerotonin
oNorepinephrine
oEndorphin
Hormones in the Body
oCortisol
Stress hormone
Associated with poor intellectual functioning, negative affect and
poor health outcomes
oTestosterone
Associated with high sexual motivation
Underlies the mating effort
oOxytocin
Bonding hormone "Tend and befriend stress hormone"
Motivates seeking the counsel, support, and nurturance of others
during times of stress
The World In Which the Brain Lives
oMotivation
Cannot be separated from the social context in which it is
embedded
Environmental events act as the natural stimulators of the
brain's basic motivational processes
We are not always consciously aware of the motivation basis of
behaviour
A person is not consciously aware of why he or she
committed the social or antisocial act
Relies on non-language unconscious structures