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Lecture 2

WMST 1000Y Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Male Gaze, Transphobia, John Berger

Women's Studies
Course Code
WMST 1000Y
Funke A

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References mla format
Submitted on blackboard
Lecture outline:
o Media and advertising influences
o Historical development of advertising
o Rise of consumer culture
o Male gaze
o Curious case of Disney
Binary and hierarchy: either/or and a list of best to worst, power to disempowered,
privileged to oppressed, “civilized” etc. Used to perpetuate transphobia, racism,
Heteronormativity: the belief that only heterosexuality is acceptable, assumed, and
normal. Used to feed transphobia…
Advertising has been called: the most influential institution of socialization in modern
Advertising as a cultural form: displays a preoccupation with gender
Pre-industrialization (pre 1800): products produced and consumed at home or in nearby
Industrialization (1800-1875): middle class, with regular wages and factory work,
changed and concentrated economic bases
Consumer culture era (1875-1918): a way of life that centered on consumption
1920s: after WWI, advertising found fame and glamour. People seek pleasure in
WWII and the 1950s (1942-1960): advertising closely linked to the war effort. Branding
of patriotism.
Peace, Love and revolution (19601972): sexual and youth revolutions. Youth and
hipness to help sell items.
1970s-1980s: height of second wave of feminism
designer era (1980s-1992) brand labels move from inside clothing to outside
internet and e-revolution (1993-200s) internet branding and interactive media
consumer culture: economy is focused on the selling of consumer goods and the spending
of consumer money
gendered identities connected to the messages that we receive through media and
consumer culture
women are presented as sexual objects to be enjoyed by men laura mulvery
camera acts as the masculine eye from a male viewpoint
the male is often perceived to the active viewer while the female is positioned as the
passive object
common constructions in the media
o the domestic woman vs sex object
o sexual objectification is a common representation in the media of women
o john berger argues that men act and women appear
post feminism and the female gaze
o encouraged a reframing of feminist values
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